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173 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive or reproduce compared with individuals without that trait
adaptation
the divergence of a clade into populations adapted to many different ecological niches (allopatry)
adaptive radiation
a trait that increases the fitness of its bearer
adaptive trait
the contribution an allele males to the phenotype that is independent of the identity of the other alleles at the same or different loci
additive effect
differences among individuals in a population that are due to additive effects of genes
additive genetic variation
any factor that causes individuals with certain phenotypes to have, on average, higher fitness than individuals with other phenotypes
agent of selection
variant forms of a gene, or variant nucleotides sequences at a particular locus
alleles
the hypothesis that speciation occurs when populations become geographically isolated and diverge because selection and drift act on them independently
allopatric model
living in different geographical areas
allopatry
distinct forms of an enzyme, encoded by different alleles at the same locus
allozymes
behaviour that decreased the fitness of the actor and increases the fitness of the recipient
alturism
descent with modification but no speciation
anagenesis
describes a trait that was possessed by the common ancestor of the species on a branch of an evolutionary tree
ancestral
a chemical typically extracted fro a microorganisms that kills bacteria by disrupting a particular biochemical process
antibiotic
a portion of a protein that is recognized by the immune system and initiates a response
antigenic site
occurs when individuals tend to mate with other individuals with the same genotype or phenotype
assortative mating
a mutation that reverses the effect of a previous mutation; typically a mutation that restores function after a loss-of-function mutation
back mutation
extinction that are not part of mass extinction events;thought to be due to typical types and rates of environmental change or species interactions as opposed to the extraordinary environmental changes that occur during mass extinctions
background extinction
a large scale but short term reduction in population size followed by an increase in population size
bottleneck
that fraction of the total phenotypic variation in a population that is caused by genetic differences among individuals
broad sense heritability
a region of DNA that has been flipped, so that the genes are in reverse order; results in lower rates of crossing over and thus tighter linkage among loci within the in-version
chromosome inversion
the set of species descended form a particular common ancestar
clade
a systematic change along a geographical transect in the frequency of a genotype and phenotype
cline
the prob. that the alleles at any particular locus in the same individual are identical by descent from a common ancestor
coefficient of inbreeding (F)
the probability that the alleles at any particular locus in two different individuals are identical by descent form a common ancestor
coefficient of relatedness (r)
that which occurs when interaction between species over time lead to reciprocal adaptation
coevolution
an experiment in which individuals form different populations or treatments are reared together under identical conditions
common garden experiment
a research progeam that compares traits and environments across taxa and looks for correlations that test hypotheses about adaptation
comparative method
similarity between species that is caused by a similar, but evolutionary independent response to a common environmental problem
convergent evolution
species that are indistinguishable morphologically, but divergent in songs, calls, odor, or other traits
cryptic species
describes a trait that was not possessed by the common ancestor of the species on a branch of an evolutionary tree
derived
a difference between the average survival, fecundity, or number of matins achieved by individuals with certain phenotypes versus individuals with other phenotypes
differential success
an animal that develops from two basic embryonic cell layers
diploblast
fitness that is due to the production of offspring
direct fitness
that which occurs when individual fitness tends to increase or decrease with the value of phenotypic trait can result in steady evolutionary change in the mean value of the trait in the population
directional selection
occurs when individuals with more extreme values of a trait have higher fitness; can result in increased phenotypic variation in a population
disruptive selection
differences among individuals in a population that are due to nonadditive effects of genes, such as dominance
dominance genetic variation
lack of morphological change over a long interval of evolution, despite many short-term changes during the same interval
dynamic stasis
a lineage of protosome animals distinguished by the prescence of molting
ecdysozoan
differences among individuals in a population that are due to difference in the environments they have experiences
environmental variation
descent wit modification; changes in allele frequencies over time
evolution
in game theory, a strategy or set of strategies that cannot be invaded by a new, alternative strategy
evolutionary stable strategy
that which occurs when an adaptation in one species reduces the fitness of individuals in a second species thereby selecting in favor of counter-adaptations in the second species.
evolutionary arms race
a diagram of the relationships of ancestry and descent among a group of species or populations
evolutionary tree
a nucleotide sequence that occurs between introns and that remians in the messenger RNA after the introns have been spliced out
exon
living today
extant
the number of gametes produced by an individual; usually used in reference to the number of eggs produced by a female
fecundity
the extent to which an individual contributes genes to future generations, or an individuals score on a measure of performance expected to correlate with genetic contribution to future generation
fitness
the elimination from a population of all the alleles at a locus but one
fixation
any trace of an organism that lived in the past
fossil
the complete collection of fossils, located in many institutions around the world
fossil record
the establishment of a new population usually by a small number of individuals
founder effect
an insertion of deletion in a coding region of a gene in which the length of the inserted or deleted sequence is not a multiple of three causes the codons downstream of the mutation to be translated in the wrong reading frame
frameshift mutation
occurs when an individuals fitness depends on the frequency of its phenotype in the population
frequency-dependent selection
the set of all copies of all gamete genotypes in a population that could potentially be contributed by the members of one generation to the members of the next generation
gamete pool
generation of an extra copy of a locus, usually via unequal crossing over
gene duplication
a group of loci related by common descent and sharing identical or similar function
gene family
the movement of alleles form one population to another population, typically via the movement of individuals or via the transport of gametes by wind, water or pollinators
gene flow
the set of all copies of all alleles in a populations that could potentially be contribute by the members of one generation to the members of the next generation
gene pool
a statistic that summarizes the number of genetic differences observed between populations or species
genetic distance
change in the frequencies of alleles in a population resulting from sampling error in drawing gametes from the gene pool to make zygotes and fro chance variation in the survival and/or reproductive success of individuals
genetic drift
differences among individuals in a population that are due to differences in genotype
genetic variation
Differences in the effect of the environment on the phenotype displayed by different genotypes
genotype-by-environment interaction
a sequence of eons, eras, periods, epochs, and stages that furnish a chronology of Earth history
geological time scale
a bar chart that represents the variation among individuals in a sample
histogram
the time required for half of the atoms of a radioactive material, present at any time, to decay into a daughter isotope
half life
an inequality that predicts when alleles for altruism should increase in frequency
hamiltons rule
a situation in which allele and genotype frequencies in an ideal population do not change from one generation to the next, because the population experiences no selection, no mutation, no migration, no genetic drift, and random mating
Hardy Weinberg eqilbirium
in the broad sense that fraction of the total phenotypic variation in a population that is caused by genetic differences among individuals; in the narrow sense that fraction of the total variation that is due to the additive effects of genes
heritability
the fraction of the individuals in a population that are heterzygotes
heterozygousity
classically defined as curious structural similarity between species despite difference in function. Today defined as similarity between species that results form inheritance of traits from a common ancestor
homology
similarity in the characters found in different species that is due to convergent evolution, parallelism, or reversal-not common descent
homoplasy
the movement of genetic material across species barriers
horizontal gene transfer
a geographical region where differentiated populations interbred
hybrid zone
describes alleles, within a single individual or different individuals, that have been inherited form the same ancestral copy of the allele
identical by descent
mating among kin
inbreeding
reduced fitness in individuals or populations resulting from kin matings
inbreeding depression
an individuals total fitness; the sum of its indirect fitness (relatives reproduction) and direct fitness (own reproduction)
inclusive fitness
a type of mutation based on the insertion or deletions of one or more bases
indel
fitness that is due to increased reproduction by relatives made possible by the focal individuals actions
indirect fitness
the hypothesis that phenotypic changes in the parental generation can be passed on intact to the next generation
inheritance of acquired traits
in genetics, occurs when the effect of an allele on the phenotype depends on the other alleles present at the same or different loci
interaction
differential mating success among individuals of one sex due to interactions with members of the other sex
intersexual selection
differential mating success among individuals of one sex due to interactions with members of the same sex
intrasexual selection
a noncoding stretch of DNA bases that occurs between the coding regions of a gene and that must be spliced out after transcription
intron
natural selection based on indirect fitness gain
kin selection
a group of ancestral and descendant populations or species that are descended form a common ancestor
lineage
a mutation that incapacities a gene,so that no functional product is produced
loss-of-function
large evolutionary change, usually in morphology, typically refers to evolution of differences among populations that would warrant their plaecment in different genera or higher-level taxa
macroevolution
a large scale sudden extinction event that is geographically and taxonomically wide spread
mass extinction
variation among individuals due to variation in nongenetic influences exerted by their mothers
maternal effect
a locus whose alleles obey Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment
Mendelian gene
changes in gene frequencies and trait distributions that occur within populations and species
microevolution
the mean phenotype of an individuals two parents
midparent value
the mean phenotype of the offspring within a family
midoffspring
in evolution, the movement of alleles form one population to another typically via the movement of individuals or via the transport of gametes by wind, water or pollinators
migration
the broad based effort accomplished during the 1930s and 1940s to unite mendelian genetics with the theory of evolution by natural selection
modern synthesis
the hypothesis that base substitutions accumulate in populations in a clock-like fashion
molecular clock
the set of species (or populations) descended from a common ancestor
monophyletic group
structural form, or physical phenotype
morphology
describes an equilibrium in the frequency of an allele that occurs because new copies of the allele are created by mutation exactly the same rate that old copies of the allele are eliminated by natural selection
mutation-selection balance
an interaction between two individuals, typically of different species, in which both individuals benefit
mutualism
the fraction of the total phenotypic variation in a population that is due to the additive effects of genes
narrow sense hertability
a difference on average between the survival or fecundity of individuals with certain phenotypes compared with individuals with other phenotypes
natural selection
selection against deleterious mutations
negative selection
a mutation that has no effect on the fitness of the bearer
neutral (mutation)
a theory that models the rate of fixation of alleles with no effect on fitness; also associated with the claim that the vast majority of observed base substitutions are neutral with respect to fitness
neutral theory
a point on an evolutionary tree at which a branch splits into two or more subbrances
node
A dna substitution that changes the amino acid sequence specified by the gene
nonsynonymous substitution
mating among unrelated individuals
outbreeding
genes that diverged after a speciation even; describes the relationship among homologous genes found in different species
orthologous
a taxonomic group that diverged prior to the rest of the taxa in a phylogenetic analysis
outgroup
the study of fossil organisms
palentology
duplicated genes found in the same genome; decribes the relationship among members of the same gene family
paralogous
a set of species that includes a common ancestor and some but not all of its descendants
paraphyletic group
expenditure of time and energy on the provision, protection, and care of an offspring
parental investment
a criterion for selecting among alternative patterns or explanations based on minimizing the total amount of change or complexity
parsimony
variation under environmental influence in the phenotype associated with a genotype
phenotypic plasticity
the total variation among the individuals in a population
phenotypic variation
the evolutionary history of a group
phylogeny
alteration of a single base in a DNA sequence
point mutation
a set of species that are grouped by similarity but no descended from a common ancestor
polyphyletic group
a node, or branch point, on a phylogeny with more than two descendent lineages emerging
polytomy
for sexual species, a group of interbreeding individuals and their offspring; for asexual species, a group of individuals living in the same area
population
the branch of evolutionary biology responsible for investigation process that cause changes in allele and genotype frequencies in populations
population genetics
selection in favour of advantageous mutations
positive selection
reproductive isolation between populations caused by dysfunctional development or sterility of hybrid forms
postzygotic isolation
reproductive isolation between populations caused by differences in mat choice or timing of breeding so that no hybrid zygotes are formed
prezygotic isolation
a lineage of animals that share a pattern of development, including spiral cleavage and formation of the mouth before anus
protosome
the branch of evolutionary biology responsible for investigation the evolution of continuously variable traits that are influence by the combined effects of genotype at many loci and the environment
quantitative genetics
a trait for which phenotypes fall into discrete categories
qualitative trait
a trait for which phenotypes do not fall into discrete categories but instead show continuous variation among individuals
quantitative trait
a collection of techniques that allow researches to indentify chromosomal regions containing loci that contribute to quantitative traits
QTL mapping
techniques for assinging absolute ages to rock samples, based on the ration of parent-to-daughter radioactive isotopes present
radiometric dating
the pattern of phenotypic plasticity exhibited by a genotype
reaction norms
an exchange of fitness benefits, separated in time, between two individuals
reciprocal alturism
the frequency, during meiosis, of crossing over between two linked loci
recombination rate
natural selection that results in assortative mating in recently diverged populations in secondary contact
reinforcement
techniques for assigning relative ages to rock strata based on assumptions about relationships between newer and older rocks
relative dating
the fitness of an individual, phenotype, or genotype, compared with others in the population
relative fitness
a DNA substitution that changes the amino acid or RNA sequence specified by a gene
replacement subsitution
the number of viable, fertile offspring produced by an individual
reproductive success
in quantitative genetics, the difference between the mean phenotype of the offspring of the selected individuals in a population and the mean phenotype of the offspring of all individuals
response to selection
an event that results in the reversion of a derives trait to the ancestral form
reversal
location on a phylogeny of the common ancestor of a clade
root
when two populations that have diverged in isolation from a common ancestor are reunited geographically
secondary contact
a variable used in population genetics to represent to difference in fitness between one genotype and another
selection coefficient
a measure of the strength of selection used in quantitative genetics
selection gradient
the viewpoint that natural selection is responsible for a significant percentage of substitutions events observed a the molecular level
selectionist theory
an interaction between individuals that results in a fitness gain for one individual and a fitness loss for the other
selfishness
a difference between the phenotypes of females versus males within a species
sexual dimorphism
a difference among members of the same sex between the average mating success of individuals with a particular phenotype versus individuals with other phenotypes
sexual selection
a DNA subsititution that does no change the amino acid specified by the gene
silent subsitutions
groups of interbreeding populations that are evolutionary independent of other populations
species
lineages that diverged from the same ancestral node on a phylogenetic tree
sister taxa/sister species
behaviour that decreases the fitness of both the actor and the recipient
spite
that which occurs when individuals with intermediate values of a trait have higher fitness
stabilizing selection
lack of change
stasis
fixation of a new mutation in a population
substitution
living in the same geographical area
sympatric
a shared, derived character
synapomorphy
the ends f the branches on a phylogenetic tree which represents extinct or living taxa
tips
an inescapable compromise between one trait and another
trade off
in DNA a mutatuion that subsitutes a purine for a purine or a pyrimidine for a pyrimidine
transition
a species that exhibits traits common to ancestral and derived groups, especially when the groups are sharply differentiated
transitional form
in DNA a mutation that substitutes a purine for a pyrimidine or a pyrimidine for a purine
transversion
an animal that develops three basic embryonic cell layers
triploblast
a crossing over event between mis paired DNA strands that results in the duplication of sequences in some daughter strands and deletions in others
unequal crossing over
the assumption that processes identical to those at work today are responsible for events that occurred in the past
uniformitarianism
unused traits that are homologous to fully functional traits in closely related species
vestigial traits
splitting of a population's former range into two or more isolated patches
vicariance
the damage inflicted by a pathogen on it hosts
virulence
a phenotype or allele common in nature
wild type