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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

work unit (danwei)

Place of employment in PRC; comes from when Chinese economy was more socialist (state-owned enterprises)
-Bound to work unit for life, based on place of work or school
-Controlled Chinese population and maintained gap between urban and rural areas
-Crucial for the 1 child policy as families could be monitored through work unit (1979)

floating population (liudong renkou)

People who reside in a population but not part of official census count; refers to Chinese migrants without local household registration
-Excluded from local welfare and educational programs, they receive no state benefits
-Spurred by rapid urbanization in China, used to be subject to discrimination

household responsibility system

- (mid 1980s)

-First adopted in agriculture and then by other sectors of economy
-Farmland owned by state; Farmers given quotas by government to produce, food produced above quota could be sold in free market
-The system was a success

one-child policy ()


- -Introduced to alleviate economic, social and environmental problems
-Caused more problems than it fixed

- recently couples have been allowed to have 2 childs if they were an only child

Special Economic Zone (SEZ) ()


-Refers to modern economic zone in mainland China introduced by PRC, business and trade laws differ from rest of country
-Ex: Shenzhen province
-Used to increase trade, investment, job creation, etc; liberal policies (taxes, quotas) implemented to entice businesses to setup in the zone

Township Village Enterprise (TVE)

-(early 1980s)

- -government entities located in rural areas
-played important role in economic development of rural areas
-Implemented household system in agriculture production
-2002, they were privatized

State Owned Enterprise (SOE)

-Legal entity that undertakes commercial activity on behalf of government
-Common with natural monopolies (telecommunication, utilities)
-Made up the majority of China’s economy and still continue to dominate
-1949: all businesses state-owned, 1980s: gov reformed enterprises, 1990s-00s: privatized mid and small sized businesses

Tan-zam (aka Tanzara) Railroad:


-Railroad between Tanzania and Zambia
-Financed and supported by China
-Built to give landlocked nation access to sea trade

- big step towards outward FDI

Concessional loan

-Granted at below-market rate
-China lends to foreign developing countries for projects and repaid in natural resources
-Method of achieving current objective to further their economy

Senkaku/ Diaoyu Islands

-Uninhabited islands off coast of China
-China regards islands part of Taiwan, Japan believes it part of Okinawa islands
-Oil reserves were discovered (1970s), leading to disputes of control; causes territorial disputes between China and Japan

Spratly Islands

-Located in South China sea
-Natural gases and oil reserves were discovered causing disputes between China, Vietnam, Brunei,
-China’s actions driven for desire for natural resources

Chinese Eximbank ()


--China Export Import bank
-Official export credit agency of China (world’s largest)
-Export credits, concessional loans, guarantees (important for China’s foreign aid)

Darfur war

- 2003

-Between rebel group and government
-Rebels claimed non-arab population had been oppressed
-Government responded with ethnic cleansing of non-Arabs
-China is major buyer of Sudan’s oil and arms and persuaded Sudan to accept additional peacekeepers

balance-of-power (theory):

-nations of the world have equal power
-Professor Kang believed no balance of power exists in Asia; China has risen, spent larger ratio of GDP on military. No one followed, nor feel threatened


-Forum of Africa-China Cooperation
-Official forum between Africa and PRC
-5 summits so far and first in 2000

Structural adjustment

-Loans provided my IMF and World bank to countries facing economic crises to focusing on trade and production
-1980s: rise of model; main model for development in Africa
-Biggest obstacles in Africa is corruption and state-led inefficiency
-To combat this, strict terms on IMF loans were forced on receiving governments like:
•get rid of tariffs/trade barriers
•impose austerity policies
•liberalizing markets (privatization)

hukou (household registration)


-• Created Urban/rural divide
• Required household registration by PRC
• Identifies person part of particular area
• Regarded as a caste system of China
• Huge impact on famine: rural areas suffered more

Yasakuni Shrine ()*********


-Shrine in Tokyo, Japan where can pay respect to those who died in service of Empire of Japan
-Controversial: houses war criminals
-Commemorates those that aren’t of Japanese ethnicity as well

Shinzo Abe

-Japan’s current PM, supports military expansion
-His visits to the Yasakuni shrine are controversial, seen to defy outcomes of WWII
-Cause of diplomatic tension with China
-Father was a PM (now labeled as an A-class criminal)

Occupy Central

-2014 HK protests
-A lot of similarities to Tiananmen Square protests (1989)
-Government announced a proposed electoral forum – led to boycotts by 3 pro-democracy students
-Chinese Media condemns event

Karamay Fire (1994)


-Fire broke out in theatre filled with students and teachers
-Over 300 people died as they were told to remain seated and let CCP leaders leave first
-Some officials present sentenced to prison, victims’ families received monetary compensation
-“let the leaders go first” – become famous phrase in criticizing governemnt

Deng Xiaoping

- de radicalized Chinese government, came to power in 1978

major reforms;
- maintain socialism with some capitalist elements

- household responsibility leads to increase in agricultural output, one child policy, SEZ’s (Special Economic Zones), 4 Modernizations (Military, industry, agriculture, science), peaceful handover of Hong Kong.

-• Abolished Mao’s rural agricultural communes and allowed peasants to cultivate family plots à grain harvests increased

Leung Chun Ying

• commonly known as C.Y. Leung
• third and incumbent Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
• came into office on July 1, 2012
• part of pro-establishment bloc (Kristen Randol)

- currently pro PRC, and PRC appointed, Chief Executive of Hong Kong

Hu Yaobang

Hu Yaobang was the General Secretary of the Communist Party from 1982 to 1987. He was a comrade of Deng Xiaoping. After Deng rose to power he promoted Hu to a series of high ranking positions. He centered on a series of economic and political reforms under Deng’s instruction. His reforms made him several enemies who opposed free market reforms. Hu was blamed for widespread student protests across China in 1987.

Hu Jintao

Leader of China from 2002-2012. Held offices of the General Secretary of the Communist Party and President of the People’s Republic of China. First leader of the communist party without revolutionary credentials. His rise to leadership represented China’s transition to younger, more practical “technocrats” presided over decade of economic growth that cemented China as a world power. (Claire Wooldridge)
Coming from a grass root background, despite his position, he was wishy-washy and did not demonstrate much individual character (was called “robot“ by western media). Compared to other leaders, his power was more limited.

Zhao Ziyang

• Third Premier of PRC (1980-1987)
• General Secretary of CPC (1987-1989)
• Critical of Maoist policies and implemented free-market reforms; sought measures to streamline China’s bureaucracy and fight corruption
• Economic reform policies and sympathies to student demonstrators placed him at odds with some party leaders
• Eventually purged politically and placed under house arrest
• Increasingly decentralized industrial and agricultural production;

- pro WEST

Zhu Rongji

Former premier of PRC from 1998 to 2003. Zhu enacted tough macroeconomic control measures. He focused on strengthening industrial and agricultural sectors while continuing a moderately tight monetary policy. He also started a large privatization program which saw China's private sector grow massively. (Olivia Sun)

Li Peng

- Premier of PRC 1987~1998, more conservative, wants to suppress students (yuhao)
(eric w) backed the use of force against the students at Tiananmen and declared martial law.

- Was largely conservative when it came to Chinese economic reform, focused less on day-to-day issues and focused on the debate regarding market reforms. Oversaw the rapidly growing economy of his office time and attempted to decentralize and downsize the Chinese bureaucracy. (Shiv Shah)

Bo Xilai

- charismatic communist party secretary 2007 - 2012

- scandal: wife paid for english business to be killed, Bo's second in command fled to US embassy, Bo found guilty of corruption, sentenced to life in prison

Liu Xiaobo

Chinese literary critic, writer, professor, and human rights activist who called for political reforms and the end of communist single-party rule; currently incarcerated as a political prisoner in China; awarded 2010 Nobel Peace Prize; Symbol of pursuing democracy in China

Xi Jinping

• now the leader of the People's Republic's fifth generation of leadership
• initiated a renewed campaign against corruption, further market economic reforms, governing with greater emphasis on the law and legal institutions
• coined the phrase "Chinese Dream" to describe his overarching plans for China as its leader. It is used to describe the aspiration of individual self-improvement in Chinese society
• taken on a hard line on security issues as well as foreign affairs, projecting a more nationalistic and assertive China on the world stage

Wen Jiabao

- He was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China starting from Nov. 2002, serving as China's head of government for a decade.

-Wen was regarded as the leading figure behind Beijing's economic policy.

- Wen advocated for a more balanced approach in developing China's hinterland regions, and advancing policies considered more favourable towards farmers and migrant workers.

- played a key role in China's response to the global financial crisis and subsequent stimulus program.

Jiang Zemin

• came to power after the Tian’anmen Square Protests of 1989, replacing Zhao Ziyang as the General Secretary.
• Under his leadership, China experienced substantial developmental growth with reforms
• return of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom and Macau from Portugal when he was in office
• improved China’s relations with the outside world while the Communist Party maintained its tight control over the government

- accused of being too conciliatory with West

KMT (Nationalist Party)

It was later led by Chiang Kai Shek and was the ruling party from 1928-1949 after it retreated to Taiwan and was defeated by the CPC during the Chinese civil war. The current president of Taiwan, Ma Ying-Jeou is part of the KMT. This party is trying to ease tensions with China. It accepts the “One-China Policy” but believes the ROP rather than the PRC is the legitimate party of Taiwan.

Chiang Kai-Shek

Leader of the Republic of China from 1928-1975. Known as Jiang Jieshi, he was strongly against the Communist party, and eventually retreated to Taiwan where he imposed martial law on his people.

Chiang Ching-kuo

He succeeded his father to serve as Premier of the Republic of China (1972 – 1978) and was the President of the Republic of China from 1978 until his death in 1988.
Under his tenure, China, while authoritarian, became more open and tolerant of political dissent. Chiang relaxed government controls on the media and speech and allowed native Taiwanese into positions of power, including his successor Lee Teng-hui. (Tiffany Tse)

Lee Teng-hui

Lee Teng-hui is the President of the Republic of China in Taiwan from 1988 to 2000. He studied in Japan and the United States, and was considered one of the elites. He helps founded the Democratic Progressive Party in September 1986. He opposed unification with China and favored independence. (Sanli Huang)

-- Helps found DPP

Chen Shuibian

• Native-born Taiwanese ROC president who ended KMT control in Taiwan (he was the first ROC president who was NOT a member of the KMT)
• He was a lawyer who was jailed in 1985 for libel as the editor of a pro-democracy magazine
• After his release, he helped found the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP)
• He was also the Mayor of Taipei in 1994
• There was a lot of corruption associated with his administration and he had a hard time trying to pass legislation against the opposing KMT

Ma Ying-Jeou

-President of Taiwan from 2008 to the current date.

-He and the KMT won against the Democratic Progressive party, who were a more progressive and liberal political party in Taiwan.

-Improve relations between Taiwan and China. Launched flights between China and Taiwan

-Angered many Taiwanese

2.28 (February 28) Incident

-Incident on 2.28.1947 begins with woman having black market cigarettes confiscated. SOON AFTER KMT TAKES OVER TAIWAN FROM JAPAN

-When the woman demands the cigarettes back, she is beaten by monopoly agents. When bystanders challenge agents, one of them shoots and kills someone, causing riots.

- Riots, often violent, break out for a week or so
Military crackdown by Chen Yi kills thousands, many elites - (Yi Meng Teng)

- Military crackdown leads to “White Terror” period of martial law during which KMT suppressed/killed political dissidents.

- Bad start to new republic

DPP (Democratic Progressive Party)

The Democratic Progressive Party is founded in 1986. It is a center-left political party which often competes with the KMT. It does not want to recognize the One China policy and is working to make Taiwan recognized as its own country, a separate one from the People’s Republic of China. It wants Taiwan to be called Taiwan, and not the Republic of China.

One China Policy

Policy by the PRC that states that there is only one China, and Taiwan is a part of it. KMT agrees with this policy. (Yi Meng Teng)

On a diplomatic level, this means that countries seeking diplomatic relations with the PRC must break official relations with the ROC and vice versa.
Faces opposition from the movement of Taiwan Independence, whose goal is to develop a separate entity from China.

1992 Consensus

October 1992: KMT and CCP informally agree to what would later be called the “1992 Consensus”
“There is only one China in the world, but each side can express different in interpretations of what ‘one China’ means