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28 Cards in this Set

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theories of the origin and history of the earth (0037)
Nebular theory (LaPlace) mass of heated gas (solar nebula) revolving about an axis, cooled. As it cooled, revolutions increased, causing rings to form. The fully contracted gases formed the sun, which when it ignited blew away all the debris other than the planets; the rings broke up and accreted into the planets.

Earth formed from a disc of matter 4.6 billion years old
First bacteria 3.6 bya


Tidal theory (discredited) large object struck the Sun, ejecting mass which formed planets
methods of determining the relative and absolute ages of inorganic and organic materials (0037)
radiocarbon dating, TiO2 rutile dating, C14 dating
expand
the structure and composition of the earth and its layers (0037)
core solid iron
molten outer core
mantle lower -- both spin at different rates, creating a giant electromagnet, with a magnetosphere which surrounds the earth
mantle (viscous, high mg, fe; lower si al) upper asthenosphere (upon which crustal plates move)
lithospheric crust (oxygen, silicon; trace of other elements)
types and characteristics of minerals, rocks, and soils (0037)
Minerals (natural ordered solid) examples: gold, clays, magnetite (iron oxide), limestone (calcium carbonate), quartz (silicon dioxide), mica, clay kaolinite.
Rock (aggregate of one or more minerals) Igneous (Intrusive, extrusive, pyroclastic).Sedimentary (Clastic (congl,sand,shale), chemical (limestone). Metamorphic (low to high-- slate, schist, gneiss, quarzite, marble)

soils (parent material, temp, moisture, acidity, drainage classification)
unweathered primary (gravel sand silt), weathered secondary (clay), organic matter (organisms and humus)
the processes of mineral formation (0037)
igneous and metamorphic
processes that are involved in the formation and destruction of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rock (0037)
plate tectonics: convergent--subduction zone with accreted sediments, hot spots; divergent--seafloor spreading; transform boundary with lateral slip
the theory of plate tectonics and supporting evidence (0037)
evidence
shapes of continents
fossil comparisons along the edge of continents
seismic, volcanic, geothermal activity along margins RING OF FIRE
there is new crust formed at ridges and sea mount hot spots; dating shows that it is progressively younger toward ridges.
processes of structural change of the earth's crust (0037)
subduction zones sea floor and conti
spreading centers
accretion
Himalaya between two continental litho
hot spots sea mounts
the effects of various agents (e.g., glaciers, water, wind) on the earth's surface (0037)
glaciers: scour away sediments; create moraines, U shaped valleys, erratics.
water: oxidation, wave erosion, frost heaves, incision of canyons with river bed.
wind: wind erosion (Utah),

physical and chemical weathering
important topographical features of the earth and their characteristics (0037)
hmmmm
types and characteristics of maps and map projections commonly used in science (0037)
mercator projection
topographic maps
planimetric maps
geologic maps
environmental
meteorological

Projections:
azimuthal: e.g., orthographic projection: from a great distance, one hemisphere
conic: e.g. polyconic used for topographic and general purpose world maps.(great circles straight, all else curved parallels)
cylindrical: e.g.mercator: rectangular; polar enlarged
the effects of catastrophic phenomena (e.g., earthquakes, collisions with asteroids) on the earth and its inhabitants (0037)
earthquakes landslides, sink holes, fault lines, tsunamis
collisions with asteroids- extinction of dinosaurs by dust cloud
properties of water (0038)
neutral pH of 7
sticks together
only substance found in all three states in normal conditions on earth
freezes 32 F, 0 C
boils 212 F, 100 C
high surface tension, capillary action
characteristics of oceans, surface water, and ground water (0038)
temperature and salinity
use of the water cycle to explain the movement and renewal of ground water and of water in oceans, glaciers, rivers, lakes, and watersheds (0038)
evaporation from water in oceans and lakes, condensation in atmosphere clouds, sublimation from snow into atmosphere, evapotranspiration from plants; precipitation as snow or rain, accumulation as glaciers, ice caps, snowmelt runoff, infiltration in aquifers, steamflow, springs and groundwater discharge.

Sun drives the water cycle
the structure and characteristics of the atmosphere (0039)
exosphere (500-1000km 310 -620 m) free moving particles moving into magnetosphere/solar wind

ionosphere (50-100 km 31-620 m)
ionized by solar radiation; responsible for auroras

thermosphere (80-85 km 50-53 mi)
t inc with height up to 1500F. Space station orbits at 320 km

mesosphere (50-80 km 31 m - 160K ft) T decreases with height reaching -100 c. Where meteors burn up.

Stratosphere (7-51 km 4.3-32 mi)
contains ozone layer O3 when UV strikes O2

troposphere (surface to 7 km poles to 17 km equator
factors that contribute to the uneven heating of the earth's surface (0039)
latitude:further from equator, sun is further away.
variation in day length: 12/12 equator, 8/16 to the north due to earth spinning on its axis
the effects on weather of the uneven heating of the earth's surface (0039)
sun heats water vs land: air rises more over land. Near shoreline, space near surface of land is replaced by cold air, creating wind, a sea breeze.

pressure gradients create wind.
mechanisms of energy transfer in the atmosphere (0039)
atmosphere O2 and N2.

energy transferred between surface and atmosphere:
solar radiation absorbed by water vapor and ozone, scattered by aerosols, reflected back into space by clouds,conduction from earth's surface at night, convection through air and water through circulation cells between the equator and poles, and radiation.

ocean currents move heat poleward (e.g. Gulf Stream)
air pressure and the movement of air in the atmosphere (0039)
as before, plus the earth rotates, causing turbulence in upper atmosphere.
cloud formation and precipitation (0039)
condensed droplets or ice crystals from water vapor as air cools on convection currents or over topography

precip is snow unless moves through warm air or low cloud; sleet if moves through more cold; hail is when a particle attracts water then moves upward into a colder region, repeat.
equipment and techniques used to monitor the weather (0039)
thermometer

barometer

wind vane

doppler radar
the interpretation of meteorological information (0039)
front between warm and cold air masses

low pressure make air rise to form clouds with precip

high pressure
jet stream

coriolis force: N clock, S counter
techniques used to predict the weather and climatic change (0039)
cloud formations

wind direction

natural phenomena, animals

historical records

climate change: ice cores, historical temperature records, changes in species, atmospheric carbon concentration changes
Don't frigging know
the planets and their characteristics (0040)
inner solar system: MeVEMa
terrestrial, rocky
small

Mercury : stony hot because close to sun
Venus : stony thick atmosphere, also hot. no hydrogen
Earth - us
Mars - stony cool not much atmosphere, enough distance from sun to hold hydrogen enabling water

asteroid belt

outer planets
gas giants: JS

Jupiter -biggest; great red spot, no surface, hydrogen and helium; four moons galilean
Saturn - ice rings, numerous moons, inc titan

modern planets (optical aid only): UN
Uranus -smaller, giant ice planet
Neptune - same
interactions and movements of the earth, moon, and sun (seasons, moon phases, tides, eclipses, solstices) (0040)
seasons- earth moving in ellipse around sun on a tilted axis
moon phases- moon moving around earth at different point in movement around sun, sun's light reflecting through earth
eclipses- sun behind the moon
solstice- longest and shortest days of the year: winter furthest northern declination; summer furthest southern declination
equinoxes- when sun crosses the celestial equator
characteristics of stars and other objects in the solar system and universe (0040)
stars nuclear fission hot gases H and He
nova dying star
nebulae birthplace of stars
comets ice debris
black holes
theories of the origin and evolution of the universe (0040)
Big Bang etc