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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Objectives of Food Sanitation
1. To ensure consumption of safe and wholesome food (prevention of food-borne infections and food poisoning)
2. To prevent sale of food offensive to the purchaser or of inferior quality (prevention of adulteration)
3. To reduce spoilage and wastage of food
Types of Food Borne Diseases
1. Food borne infections - caused by living organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, etc.
2. Food poisoning or intoxication - caused by bacterial toxins, chemicals, or naturally occurring poisons
Ways by which food may be adulterated
1. Mixing other substances to increase bulk
2. Concealing inferior quality
3. Abstraction of an essential ingredient
4. Addition of poisonous substances
5. Selling of partly decomposed products
6. Misbranding or mislabeling
Types of Food Hazards
1. Biological: bacteria, viruses, parasites
2. Chemical: heavy metals, natural toxins, sanitizers, pesticides, antibiotics
3. Physical: Bone, rocks, metal
Food technology for preservation
1. Drying, dehydrating, and evaporation
2. Refrigeration at 0 - 4 C
3. Cooking, boiling, sterilization
4. Smoking
5. Radiation
6. Addition of preservatives
7. Salting
8. Pickling or souring
9. Sugaring
10. Canning
Essentials of Food Establishment Sanitation
1. Healthy Food Handlers
2. Safety of Food and Drinks
3. Adequate Clean Water
4. Lavatory Facilities
5. Sanitary toilet
6. Adequate lighting and ventilation
7. Adequate food storage and refrigeration
Essentials of Sanitary Milk Production
1. Healthy cows
2. Clean milking barns
3. Adequate storage
4. Adequate clean water
5. Proper waste disposal
6. Healthy milk handlers
7. Sanitation of milking equipment
8. Pastuerization
Examination of Milk
1. Physical - for total solids, butterfat
2. Chemical - for suspected preservatives added
3. Bacteriological - plate count, direct microscopy
4. Others - Reductase test, phosphatase test
Food borne illnesses
-On the rise globally
-Either infectious or toxic in nature caused by ingesting "pathogens" (e.g. bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses) through contaminated food or water
-The condition is otherwise known as "food-poisoning"
Magnitude of Food Borne Illnesses
1. 2.1 million people died of diarrheal disease worldwide in 2000
2. Some well recognized food borne illnesses are recognized as emerging because recently, these food borne illnesses are becoming more common (e.g. - salmonellosis)
3. Approximately with 7.6 million cases every year in the United States, 2 million cases in the United Kingdom, 1 million cases in Canada, and 750,000 cases in France
4. 700,000 people die yearly from food and water borne diseases in the Asia-Pacific region, including the Philippines
~In the Asia-Pacific region, the danger of food related outbreaks is due to:
a. The proximity of animal and people to food production
b. Unsafe food production
Why do food borne illnesses occur?
The most common causes are errors on food handling and preparation at home, in restaurants, and other eating places
Who is at risk for food borne illnesses?
1. Young children
2. Pregnant mothers
3. The elderly
4. The immunocompromised
What causes food borne illnesses?
The common causes of food borne illness are harmful bacteria (e.g. - E. Coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio cholerae), molds (fungi), parasites (e.g. - Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (e.g. - hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses)
How are food borne illnesses prevented?

-Basic Principles Involved
-Prevention of harmful bacteria from growing on foods
Basic principles involved:
a. Careful washing of hands before preparing food
b. Thorough cooking of foods particularly beef, poultry, and eggs
c. Thorough washing of fruits and vegetables, especially those that will be eaten raw
d. Avoid drinking unpasteurized milk, fruit juices and untreated surface water
e. Protecting foods from insects, animals, and rodents

Prevention of Harmful Bacteria from Growing on Foods:
a. Refrigerate foods immediately
b. Cook foods to proper temperature; properly cooked foods are heated long enough and at high temperature sufficient to kill the harmful bacteria
c. Prevent cross contamination (e.g. - separate raw foods from cooked foods)
d. Handle foods properly
Control of infectious diseases acquired through the GI Tract
1. Infective agent
a. Sanitary disposal of feces
b. Elimination of human and animal feces

2. The route of transmission
a. Provision of safe water supply
b. Protection of food from water contamination
c. Control of flies
d. Improvement of personal hygiene

3. The host
a. Specific immunization
b. Chemophylaxis
c. Specific Treatment