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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Causes of disease by insects
1. Hypersensitivity to bites or allergy to hair or scales
2. Infestation or direct invasion by mites or parasitic larvae
3. Insects acing indirectly as a vector
Arthropods or other invertebrates which transmit infection by inoculation into or through the skin or mucous membrane by:
1. Biting
2. Deposit of infective materials on the skin or on food or other objects
Types of Vector
1. Mechanical
2. Biologic - as a biologic vector the insect may be the definite host or intermediate host of the infectious agent
Transmission of insect borne diseases has these links
1. Sick person
2. Vector
3. Well person
Defensive Measures
1. Protective Clothing
2. Use of repellants / nets / screens
3. Avoidance of places with insects
Offensive or attack measures: defintion and types of control measures
Directed towards the control of the insect population

1. Naturalistic or environmental control
2. Mechanical control
3. Chemical control
4. Biological control
Offensive or attack measure: Naturalistic or environmental control
-A change in the environment to make it unsuitable for the breeding and growth of the insect; Includes:
1. Proper waste disposal
2. Drainage or flushing of stagnant water
3. Damming
4. Control of water level

-Requires a thorough knowledge of insect biodynamics
-Involves a long range program and may require agricultural engineering projects
*Results are permanent and lasting
Offensive or attack measure: Mechanical control
-The destruction of insects through mechanical means, such as traps, screens, swats, fly paper, swatting, catching, etc.
*Results are immediate but not practical, as these effects are limited and temporary
Offensive or attack measure: Chemical control
-Destruction of insects through chemical means of the use of insecticides and larvicides
*Most popular and practical method of control
-A drawback is the tendency of insects to develop some resistance to specific insecticides
Offensive or attack measure: Biologic control
Release of sterile male insects
Rodents as vector
Rodents cause harm by serving as a reservoir of infection for plague, Weil's disease (leptospirosis), murine typhus, rat bite fever, salmonellosis, etc., and by destroying food, clothing, furniture, etc.
Rodent control measures
1. Killing - poisoning, trapping, fumigation
2. Rodent stoppage and rat proofing - elimination of rodent entrance and avenues
3. Environmental sanitation - cleanliness and proper waste disposal to deny rodents of food
Mosquitoes - significance as vector
Mosquitoes are considered as the most important arthropods from the point of view of public health, being responsible for more morbidity and mortality than any other arthropod
Four stages of the life cycle of a mosquito
1. Egg - laid in the surface of the water, 100-300 at a time about 12 times in the lifespan of a female mosquito; hatches into larva in 3 - 4 days
2. Larva - grows into pupa in 1 week
3. Pupa - develops into an adult in about 3 days
4. Adult

*Total life cycle is completed in 2 to 3 weeks
Four genera of mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit
1. Anopheles sp. - Malaria
2. Culex sp. - Bancroftian Filiarisis, Japanese Encephalitis
3. Mansonia sp. - Brugian or Malaysian Filariasis
4. Aedes sp. - Dengue hemorragic fever, Chikungunya fever