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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Axo-axonic synapse that reduces the mebrane permeability to Ca2+ by release of GABA. This results in a reduction in NT release.
How is an IPSP created?
Membrane permeability to Cl- and K+ is increased, causing hyperpolarization that makes AP generation more difficult.
What are the zones of the brain?
Forebrain - telencephalon, diencephalon
Midbrain - mesencephalon
Hindbrain - metencephalon, myencephalon
What comprises the TELENCEPHALON?
Cerebrum, basal ganglia
What comprises the DIENCEPHALON?
Thalamus, hypothalamus
What comprises the BRAINSTEM?
Midbrain, pons, medulla
What type of matter comprises the CEREBRAL CORTEX?
Gray matter
Functionally describe the cerebral cortex
- Destination of sensory info
- Source of voluntary motor commands
- Where the "action happens"
What do the basal ganglia do?
- Gray matter
- Control movement along with cerebellum:
- INHIBIT muscle tone
- 'filter' movement commands
- posture/support
- MODIFY ongoing action; do not innervate muscles
How does PARKINSON'S DISEASE relate to the basal ganglia?
Basal ganglia receive insufficient dopamine; cannot properly exert their influence
What does the thalamus do?
- Gray matter
- Relays sensory information EXCEPT OLFACTION
- Modifies (+ reinforcement) motor commands from cortex
What does the hypothalamus do?
- Gray matter
- Contorl of BODY TEMP
- Control of THIRST/URINE
- Control of HUNGER
- Control of ANT. PIT secretion
- Production of POST. PIT secretions
- Uterine contraction, milk
- Autonomic control: smooth/cardiac muscle, exocrine glands
- Emotion/behaviour
What does the corpus callosum do?
Communication between the hemispheres
What do the midbrain/pons/medulla do?
- White matter
- Tracts carry info
- Nuclei responsible for cranial nerve function
What is the reticular formation?
- Neurons forming the core of the brainstem
What is the ASCENDING reticular formation?
HIGHER cortical functions; ie, generate/maintain arousal and consciousness
What is the DESCENDING reticular formation?
Muscle tone generation/maintenance
What is the MEDULLA?
Respiratory/cardiovascular centres
How many, and what are the different parts of the spinal cord?
- 31 total
- 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
- Thoracic/lumbar regions enlarged for arms/legs