Parkinson's Disease And Body Movement

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The basal ganglia plays a vital role in the way movement happens and when dopamine does not follow the path that it is suppose to, it hinders body movement. Parkinson’s disease is often known as PD and it is a progressive neurological condition, which means the sickness and symptoms get more severe as time goes on (Noble, 2007). Out of all the neurodegenerative disorders, PD is the second most common one (Noble, 2007). It happens amongst 1% of the population older than sixty years. (Samii, 2004). This disease comes to affect the movement, mood, cognition, swallowing and communication in the individual. PD develops when cells that make dopamine dissipate and eventually die which stops the neurotransmitter from working (Noble, 2007). This dopamine …show more content…
These are known as the “three cardinal features” of PD: rest tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia (Samii, 2004). One of the first symptoms noticeable in 70% of people with PD is resting tremor with a frequency of three to five Hz (Samii, 2004). It is “usually asymmetric at disease onset and worsens with anxiety, contralateral motor activity, and during ambulation” (Samii, 2005). Although the tremor can happen in the hands, arms, jaws, face and legs, it is more common for it to develop in the hands. Rigidity is the stiffness of the certain limbs and trunk, it increases with contralateral motor activity or mental task performance (Samii, 2005). Bradykinesia is probably one of the hardest symptoms to deal with when it comes to the early stages of PD. It begins with having difficulties with fine motor tasks like buttoning clothing items, a reduced arm swing when walking, and handwriting (Samii, 2005). Bradykinesia tends to create slowness in movement, which makes it difficult to perform simple, every day …show more content…
Several studies have shown that adult brains can be changed or modified by experience, which in this case refers to exercise (Petzinger, 2010). The way in which significant progress has been seen after exercise is when a “skill acquisition process” takes place. This has to do with the intensity, specificity, difficulty and complexity of the exercise; these cause a longer lasting effect on both the brain and behavior of the PD patient (Petzinger, 2010). Through exercise there has been improvement in balance in mobility amongst PD patients. There was a study done in which thirty-four participants (age- late sixty’s) who had PD in both early and later stages were separated into two different groups (Gobbi, 2009). One group was put into an intensive exercise program, which included aerobic capacity, flexibility, strength, motor coordination and balance. This group practiced for “six months: 72 sessions, 3 times a week, 60 minute per session” (Gobbi, 2009). On the other hand, into an adaptive program which included flexibility, strength, motor coordination and balance. This group practiced for “six months: 24 sessions, once a week, 60 minutes per session (Gobbi, 2009). All participants were tested before their exercisetraining. After the exercise training, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed up and Go Test tested the patients with PD; the results on the test showed improvement

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