• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

When is there a rapid pace of growth?

The first two years of life.

5 months- 15 lbs

1 year- 22 lbs, 30 inches tall

2 years- 3 feet tall

Cephalocaudal Principle

Growth follows a direction and pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts, and then proceeds to the rest of the body

Proximodistal Principle

Development proceeds from the center of the body outwards

Principle of Hierarchial Integration

Simple skills typically develop separately and independently, but these simple skills are integrated into more complex ones

Principle of the Independence of Systems

Different body systems grow at different rates


Nerve cells


Cluster of fibers


The part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other nuerons


Chemical messengers


Small gaps between neurons

Synaptic Pruning

If certain nerve connections are not stimulated by a baby's experiences, then they are eliminated


A fatty substance that provides protection and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses

Cerebral Cortex

The upper level of the brain

When do the synapses and myelinization experience a growth spurt in the area of the cortex involving auditory and visual skills?

3-4 months

Shaken Baby Syndrome

An infant is taken by a caretaker, usually out of frustration or anger due to baby's crying, which can lead the brain to rotate within the skull. This can cause several medical problems, speech disabilities, and long term physical disabilities such as blindness and hearing impairment. 25% of babies who are shaken ultimately die


The degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience

Sensitive Period

A specific, but limited, time, usually early in an organism's life, during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relating to some particular facet of development


Repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior such as wakefulness to sleep, and breathing and sucking patterns


The degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stiumlation

Sleep and Infants

Most babies do not sleep through the night for several months and REM sleep consumes 1/2 of their sleep. The brain waves of infants appear to be qualitatively different than sleeping adults, and research suggest that this provides a means for the brain to stimulate itself. Long and short term stressors can an infants environment can affect their sleep patterns.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

A disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep. Males, African Americans, and babies with low birth weights or low APGAR scores are at higher risk for SIDS. Parents often feel guilt.


Unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of a certain stimuli (swimming reflex, eye blink reflex). They stimulate parts of the brain responsible for more complex behaviors, helping them develop.

Absence of a Reflex

The absence of a reflex at a certain point of infancy can provide a clue that something may be amiss in an infant's development.

Gross Motor Skills

Infants accomplish some movement

Fine Motor Skills

Infants show some ability to coordinate the movements of their limbs

Dynamic Systems Theory

Motor behaviors are assembled

ex. crawling requires the coordination of muscles, cognition, and motivation


Represent the average performance of a large sample of children at a given age

Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale

A measure designed to determine infants' neurological and behavioral responses to their environment

What happens to infants when they don't have the proper nutrition?

They can't reach their physical potential and may suffer cognitive and social consequences. They need 50 calories for each pound.

Bottle vs. Breast

In the 1940s, childcare experts recommend the bottle, but today, experts recommend breastfeeding, as it is more easily digested, sterile, and convenient. It also creates intimacy between a mother and infant and creates a feeling of well being within the mother.


The condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients. This is a larger problem in developing countries, and can lead to several disorders.


Some deficiency in diet

Nonorganic Failure to Thrive

Children stop growing due to lack of stimulation and attention from parents rather than because of biological factors


Weight greater than 20% above the average for given height

Principles of Development

People develop at different rates, it is relatively orderly, and takes place gradually. The brain is only 25% of its adult weight, although they are born with all their neurons.

Brain at Birth

Neurons communication through dendrites and axons and don't touch each other, but are neurotransmitter at synapses.

Structure of Neurons

Alzheimer's- Myelin sheath is deteriorating

Types of Neurons

Sensory- carries info from sensory systems to the brain, afferent

Motor- carry intro from the brain to muscles and other glands, efferent

Interneurons- carry info between the neurons

Glial Cells

Cells that insulate and support neurons, create the myelin sheath, remove waste products, provide nourishment, and prevent harmful substances from entering the brain.

The Neural Impulse

All or none law- a neuron either fires or it doesn't and when it does, it will always produce an impulse of the same strength

The Synapse

The synaptic space in the gap between neurons, and the terminal button is the enlarged area at the end of an axon.

Transmission Between Neurons

Synaptic vessels, neurotransmitters, and receptor sites. Neurotransmitters give us action.

7 Neurotransmitters (Important Ones)

Dopamine- pleasure and reward; voluntary movement

Serotonin- regulates sleep, dreaming, mood, appetite and sexual behavior

Norepinephrine- controls heartrate, sleep, sexual responsiveness, stress, vigilance, and appetite

Acetylcholine- primary transmitter used by neurons carrying messages from CNS; involved in some kinds of learning and memory

GABA- prevalent neurotransmitter in neurons of CNS

Glutamine- primary excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS; involved in learning and memory

Endorphins- pleasurable sensations and control of pain


Most psychoactive drugs and toxins work by blocking or enhancing synaptic transmission


The physical stimulation of the sense organs


The mental process of sorting out, interpreting, analyzing, and integrating stimuli from the sense organs and brain

Sound Localization

Permits us to pinpoint the direction from which a sound is emanating

What auditory perception skills do infants have?

They hear from before birth, and react to changes in musical key in rhythm. 1 month olds can make a distinction between two similar sounds, such as different voices.

What visual perception skills do infants have?

They can see about as well as the uncorrected vision of many adults who wear glasses or contact lenses. Around 14 weeks, they acquire binocular vision, or the ability to combine the images coming into each eye to see depth and motion. They show visual preferences, such a stimulating images that include patterns and certain colors, shapes , and configurations.

Sense of Smell

Extremely developed, some infants could recognize mother by smell alone.


Infants can develop taste preferences based on what the mother drank while the infant was in the womb, and show disgust when they taste something bitter. They have an innate sweet tooth.


Infants experience pain


One of the most highly developed sensory systems. Touch plays an important role in their future development, for it triggers a complex chemical reaction that assists infant survival

Multimodal Approach to Perception

Considers how info that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated


The options that a given situation or stimulus provides

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

Action = Knowledge

All children pass through a series of four universe stages: sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete operational, and formal operational.


Organized patterns of functioning, that adapt and change with mental development