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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
relatively perminatn chang in organism's behavior do to experience
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. events may be 2 stimuli (classical)or response and consequence (operant)
classical conditioning
assoc of 2 stimuli. neural stimulus that signals an unconstitutional stimulus (US) begnins to produce a response that anticipates and prepes for the US AKA Pavlovian/Respondent Conditioning
Salavating Dogs and food
Baby Albert and the rat
view that psych 1. should be objective science that 2. studies behavior w/o feference to mental processes. most psychists today like 1. but not 2.
unconditioned response (UR)
unlearned, natural response to the US (ex. salavation to the sight of food)
unconditioned stimulus (US)
stim that unconditionally-nautrally and automatically triggers a response
(ex. food)
conditioned response (CR)
learned response to previously natural CS
(ex. dogs salavating when they hear the bell)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
originally irrevelent stim that after assoc with US comes to trigger a CR
(ex. the bell)
innitial learning.
diminishingg of CR. CC= when US doesn't follow CS, OC=response no longer enforced
spontanous recovery
reappearance of the CR (weakened) after theCR had been extinct
gtendency to respond to similiar stimuli
ability to discriminate btw cs and similiar irreveant stimuli
operant conditioning
behavior strenghtened if followeed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimuli
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the envrionment producing consequences
law of effect (rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur)
modern behaviorism's most influential/controversioal figure. "behavioral technology" revealed princibles of behav control.
operant chamber "skinner box"
containingg bar/key that animal (pidgeon) can manipulate to obtain food/water reinforcer, w/ attached denseto record animal's rate ofbarpressing/key pecking. used in OC research
procedure in which reinforcers guidebehavior toward closer approximations of desired behavior
successive approximations
rewards make it get closser to do what is desired
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by increasing positive stimuli (food)
negative reinforcement
increases behaviors by stopping or reducing the negative stimuli (seat belt noise)
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus such as onethatsatisfies a biological need (food when hungry)
conditional reinforcer
"secondary reinforcer" stim that gains reinforcing power through association witha promary reinforcer-> learned reinforcers (rat will turn on a light if they know the light will trigger food)
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing desired behavior everytime it occurs -->rapid learning
partial (imtermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; slower acquisition of a reslonse but a much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous rein.
fixed-ratio schedules
reinforcement shcoedule that reinforces only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedules
a reinforcement schedule that rein a response only after an unpredictible # of responses
fixed-interval scedules
rein schedule that rein a response at predictible time intervals
positive punishment
administer an adversive stimuli (spanking)
negative punishment
withdraw a desireable stimulus (take away toys)
cognative map
mental representation of the layout of one's environment
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is incentive to demonstrate it
intirnsic motivation
desire to preform behavior for own sake
extrinsic motivation
desire to preform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
observational learning
learning by observing others
process of learning and exhibiting specific behavior
transmitted cultural elements (ideas, fashion, habits... travelling by immitiation)
mirror neurons
frontal love neurtons that fire when preforming certain actions or when observing another doing so. brain's mirroring of another's acrion may enable immitation, languagge, learningg and empahty--> theory of mind
pioneer researcherof observational learning
-bobo dolls
positive, constructive, helpful behavior (opposite of anti social behavior... MLK Jr. and Ghandi)