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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who was the main psychologist behind "associative learning" aka "classical conditioning"?
Ivon Pavlov
How did Pavlov become interested in / discover "associative learning"?
He initially observed the salivation of dogs and was having difficulties understanding why they salivated at different times.
Who came up witht he idea of "The Law of Effect" (consequences of behavior determine its survival)?
Edward Thorndike
What was Thorndike's "Law of Effect"?
Consequences of behavior determine its survival... What occurs after we behave determines whether we learn it or not.
What did Wilhelm Wundt found in the history of psychology and what did it focus on?
He founded the first school of psychology focused on the "structure" of consciousness, the building blocks of perception.
What kind of psychologists "studied the elements of perception through the methodology of introspection"?
What is introspection?
Looking inside of oneself and reporting; very subjective.
What did structuralists try to describe?
Qualities of perception.
For example, describe the color yellow.
Who came up with a revolutionary idea about psychology in the 1920's and what was their philosophy?
John Watson - Behaviorism
Who believed in these criteria?
-Introspection was rejected
-Objective analysis of behavior
-Quantitative, measurable data
Who followed the S-R Psychology method?
What does S-R Psychology stand for / mean?
Stimuli and Responses are observable and objective, and should be the sole object of study in psychology.
What is the updated version of the S-R model?
S-O-R model (Stimuli - Organismic - Responses)
What does the O stand for and mean in the S-O-R model?
Organismic events: internal, cognitive, mental events with neurobiological underpinnings)
What is classical conditioning?
When stimuli become associated with one another and come to substitute for one another.
What is the UCS? What was the UCS in Pavlov's original experiment?
UnConditioned Stimulus
What is the UCR? What was the UCR in Pavlov's original experiment?
UnConditioned Response; Reflex
What is the CS? What was the CS in Pavlov's original experiment?
Conditioned Stimulus
What is the CR? What was the CR in Pavlov's original experiment?
Conditioned Response
Are the UCS and the CS the same?
They are similar, but not identical.
What is generalization?
A similar stimulus to the CS might lead to a similar response (CR).
What is discrimination?
Absence of generalization (similar stimulus's are differentiated between so that they don't elicit the CR).
What is extinction?
The tendency of CR to weaken in intensity when CS is presented without the CR.
What is acquisition?
The formation of conditioning a previously neutral stimulus (NS) to have a conditioned response (CR).
What is spontaneous recovery?
The occurrence when a CS that has been extinguished elicits the CR.
What are the two factors in "Mowrer's Two-Factor Theory"?
1) Classical conditioning - fear is learned
2) Operant conditioning - fear is maintained
What is avoidance learning?
Withdrawal from a fear / behavior increases in frequency because it is negatively reinforced; extinction of a fear can not occur because the learner never confronts the fear.
What is systematic desensitization?
-->Treatment for phobias using the principle of counterconditioning
Takes classical conditioning into realm of cognition: visual imagery and mental associations are actively engaged to "desensitize" various fears or stimuli.
What is counterconditioning?
A classical conditioning procedure for weakening a CR by associating the CS (fear-producing stimuli) with a new response incompatible with the fear.
What 3 basic steps / techniques are utilized in SD (systematic desensitization)?
1) Hierarchy of feared situations
2) Relaxation and coping imagery skills
3) Application of relaxation in combination with the hierarchy
What is In Vivo Desensitization and how does it different from Stimulus Desensitization?
In Vivo means literally "in life" - facing fears in real life whereas SD is merely mental associations.
What determines the survival of behaviors?
Consequences, as in Thorndike's "Law of Effect"
What is shaping?
Complex sequences of behavior are learned gradually through selective reinforcement of "successive approximations" of target behavior.
What is the general idea of reinforcement?
The process of strengthening or increasing the probability of behavior.
What is positive reinforcement?
When a pleasant/positive stimulus follows a behavior and strengthens it.
What are some examples of positive reinforcement?
Money, good grades, hugs, high fives, pleasant drug effects, promotions, bonuses...etc.
What is negative reinforcement?
When a negative / aversive stimulus is removed following a behavior resulting in a strengthening of the behavior.
What are some examples of negative reinforcement?
Pain relievers, giving into whining child, being tortured (tell them what they want, stop being tortured, increase in talking)...etc.
What is punishment?
The process of weakening the probability of behavior.
What are some examples of punishment?
Electric shock social disapproval, monetary fines, jail terms, spankings... etc.
Is an aversive stimulus always a punisher?
No, because sometimes the aversive stimulus does not decrease the likelihood of the behavior being repeated.
Which is more effective, reinforcement or punishment? Why?
Reinforcement, because punishment is very inconsistent.
What is a ratio schedule?
A schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs.
What is an interval schedule?
A schedule in which reinforcement is based on specific units of time.
What is a fixed schedule?
A schedule in which reinforcement is consistently provided upon each occurrence.
What is a variable schedule?
A schedule in which reinforcement is applied at different rates or at different times.
What is the best schedule for learning something quickly (but extinguishes relatively quickly)?
Continuous Reinforcement: Fixed Ratio Schedule.
What is the best schedule for maintaining learning (not necessarily faster though)?
Partial Reinforcement: Variable Ratio Schedule.
What does the Social Learning Theory believe in?
A cognitively controlled mind.
What did the Social Learning Theory replace?
How did the Social Learning Theory come to be?
By re-introducing the importance of internal mediating forces (the O's in the S-O-R model).
What does the Social Learning Theory focus on?
Observational and Learning Phenomena or Imitation Learning
Which type of neurons help us understand others behavior for us?
Mirror neurons.
What is latent learning?
When you know something but you don't demonstrate your knowledge of it.
What did Albert Bandura study?
The influence of modeling aggressive behavior in social learning.
What was the IV in Bandura's Bobo Doll Study?
Exposed to aggression or not / reward or punished for aggression.
What was the DV in Bandura's Bobo Doll Study?
Aggressive behavior.
What was the order of mean imitative aggression scores for children from high to low?
Aggressive model rewarded (15), aggressive model punished (9), non-aggressive model (7), no model (5).
What are the four cognitive "O" factors in the S-O-R model?
1) Attention
2) Retention
3) Reproduction
4) Motivation
What were the three groups in Seligman's Helplessness model?
1) being shocked but can do an action to escape (escapable shock)
2) being shocked when ever group 1 is shocked (inescapable shock)
3) did not get shocked
What were the results from the Seligman Helplessness model?
The inescapable shock group has learned helplessness because they did not try to escape the shock whereas the other dogs tried and managed to escape shock.
What was the name of the place the dogs in the Seligman Helplessness Model were placed when they were testing for helplessness?
Shuttle Box.