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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
preoperational stage (2-7)
use of symbols and language acceserlates
In piaget's theory, mental actions that are cognitely reversible
egocentric thinking
seeing the world from only your point of view;the inability to take another's perspective
understanding that the physical properties of objects-such as the number of items in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glass=can remain the same even when their form or appearance changes
concrete operations stage (7 to 12)
children's thinking is grounded in concrete experiences and concepts, rather than abstractions or logical deductions, they learn identity
formal operations stage (age 12 through adulthood)
teenagers become capable of abstract reasoning
Vygotsky's theory of sociocultural influences
children use private speech--> this is why adult language and guidance is very important
Cognitive abilities develop in steps or in overlapping waves
overlapping waves
Children understand (more/less) than Piaget said
Preschoolers are or aren't egocentric
aren't.. i.e. they modify their speech so younger pre-schoolers will underwstand
theory of mind
system of beliefs that the way the mind works and how cognitions and feelings affect behavior
cogitive development depends upon ____ & _____.
education and culture
piaget (underestimated/overestimated)children's ablitiy
underestimated.. yet he overestimated adults abilities to always be able to reason
Kohlberg's 3 stages of moral development
preconventional, conventional, postconvetional
preconventional morality
what is right is what feels good, they fear being punished
conventional morality
10 or 11 based on conformity and loyalty to others.. based on understanding law and justice
postconventional morality
realizes immoral laws, popel find values and standards
moral reason is influenced by
moral reasoning is profoudnly affected by cultural _____ and ____
experiences and values
Moral reasoning is inconsistent across
moral reasoning is unrelated to moral ____
STDs can do what to a baby
retardation, blindness, and other physical disorders
cigarette smoking can do what to a baby?
miscarriage, premature birth, abnormal heartbeat, underweight baby
Having more than two alcoholic drinks can lead to
fetal alcohol syndrome
drugs can
morphine, cocaine, and heroin think crack baby
physical abilities of a newborn
motor reflexes, can see 8 inches in focus range, can see contrasts, shadows, edges, can distinguish their mother
social skills of babies
babies can smile at people
an infant touched on the cheek or mouth will turn towards something to suck on
will suck on anything such as a nipple or finger
infant can swallow though the reflex is not yet well coordinated with breathing
moro or "startle"
in response to a loud noise or physical shock, an infant will throw its arms outward and arch back
in response to touch on the bottom of the foot.. infants toes will go outward then curl in
in response to touch on hand, infant will grasp
walking, can show ability to walk in steps
the adjustment of one person's nonverbal behavior to coordinate with another's
universal capacity of all primates and is crucial for health and survival all through life
contact comfort
in promates, the innate pleasure derived from physical contact; it is the basis of the infant's first attachment
separation anxiety
the distress that most children develop, at about 6 to 8 months of age, when their primary caregivers temporarily leave them with strangrs
Mary Ainsworths' Strange Situation
leavin the child alone with stranger, stranger and mother, and alone, and mother
securely attached
crying babies if the parent leaves and welcomes parent back
insecurely attached
little reaction to mother leaving the room, avoidant
anxious ambivalent
want to be put down, can be angry w/ mother
"baby talk" parents help babies find the "melody"
4-6 months of age babies can (speech)
recognize their own names and other familiars
6-mos to 1 yr can do this with language
sound structure of their own language
11 months babies learn this ___
18 mos to 2 years babies can
develop word combos
the way babies talk
Jean Piaget
pioneer of cognitive development in children how thinking develops (theory of cognitive stages)
adaptation includes
assimilation and accomodation
the process of absorbing new info into existing cognitive structures (already exisiting beliefs)
the process of modifying existing cognitive structure in response to experience and new info
the four stages of Piaget
sensorimotor, preoperational stage, concrete operations stage, formal operations stage
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
learning through concrete actions, movemnts become more purposeful, and they learn object permanence
object permanence
understanding which develops through 1st year that an object continues to exist even when u cannot see or touch it
developmental psychologists
study physiological and cognitive changes across the life span
children learning the rules and behavior expected of them by society
Prenatal development stages
germinal, embryonic, fetal
germinal stage
uniting of sperm and egg
cluster of cells that in 10-14 days attaches itself to the wall of uterus
embryonic stage
2 weeks after conception lasting until the 8th week
fetal stage
8 weeks
can hurt the baby's eyes ears, and heart.. common consequence is deafness
x-rays or toxic chemicals can do what to a baby?
fetal abnormalities and deformities, attention problems and lower IQ