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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General Formula for Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide
oligo is a short carb chain while poly is a long carb chain
Naming monosaccharides
you place the suffix -ose at the end of the word and count the number of carbons. You begin counting the carbons at the point of the carbonyl group on both aldehydes or ketones
What exactly is a carbohydrate?
It is a polyhydoxylated aldehyde or ketone. As in, it is an aldehyde or ketone with multiple hydroxy groups
D sugars - L sugars
D sugars will have the hydroxy group on the highest numbering chiral center on the right while the L sugars will have it on the left.
Identical sugars in the same optical families are____?
Non identical sugars that are in the same family are_____?
These are a special case of diastereomers in which they only differ at one of their chiral carbons
Four important monosaccharides to know.
D-Glucose. D-Fructose. D-Galactose. D-Manose
A aldose is a carbohydrate that had an aldehyde while the ketose is a carbohydrate that has a ketone
Since the hydroxy group is a nucleophile and the carbonyl group is an electrophile, the carbohydrate can undergo intramolecular bonding to form RINGS. Pyranose is a six membered ring and furanose is a five membered ring
Fischer Projection
Anything on the right will be DOWN on the chair representation and anything on the left will be UP
Anomeric Carbon
When the monosaccharide becomes a ring, the carbon on the carbonly group becomes a CHIRAL carbon. This is known as an anomeric carbon.
Compounds that differ about the newly formed chiral carbon
How to find the anomeric carbon.
The anomeric carbon will be the carbon that is attached to both the oxygen that was on the carbonly and the hydroxy group.
Alpha and Beta Anomers
The alpha anomer will have the CH2OH group in the TRANS position relative to the hydroxy group that is attached to the anomeric carbon while the beta anomer will have the CH2OH group CIS to the hydroxy group attached to the anomeric carbon
When you expose the ring to water the ring will open and then close which may change the configuration of the anomeric carbon from alpha to beta or vice versa.
Ester formation
If you treat a monosaccharide with (CH3CO)O2, each of the hydroxy groups will be attached to the (CH3CO)O2 forming an ester.
Oxidation of Monosaccharides/Aldonic Acid
Since monosaccharides have hydroxy groups, they can be oxidized. The oxidized formed of these monosaccharides is known as aldonic acid
Reducing Sugar
Since the hydroxy group on the monosaccharide can be oxidized to the carboxylic acid, they are very good reducing agents. Benedicts solution and Tollens test are good tests for looking for these carbohydrates
An acetal group is a group that was an aldehyde. The aldehyde then was attached by a nucelophile which removed the double bond and placed and R group with an O attached to it. The hemiacetal still has the OH attached to it while the acetal just has three R groups and an H attached to it. The same principles apply to the ketals except the acetal has one H while the ketal does not
Glycosidic Linkage/Glycoside
When you expose glucose to HCL and C2H5OH, the C2H5OH will attach to the hydroxyl group that is attached to the anomeric carbon. This is known at an acetal group because the anomeric carbon is attached to three -RO groups and one H.
Disasaccharide formation
The hydroxy group of the monosaccharide can act as an alcohol like we saw in the glycosidic reaction in which an alcohol attached to the anomeric hydroxy to from an acetal. The monosaccharide can act the same way and bind to the hydroxy group of the another monosaccharide. In this reaction we generally see 1,4 linkages as the most common but there are 1,2 and 1,6 linkages
ALL monosaccharides are linked together by_____?
Glycosidic linkages