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37 Cards in this Set

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the right to vote in a country
Suffrage
Who was able to vote first in the colonies?
It started out that there was a property qualification for voting so that out ruled any Catholics, Jews, Native Americans, and freed black slaves. Women were not allowed to vote no matter what. There were only some men, all white, protestant, and gainfully employed, that could vote until the 1840s when all white men could vote regardless of their property ownership.
What amendment gave women the right to vote?
In 1920, women were given the right to vote in the 19th amendment.
What amendment allowed people regardless of race, color, etc. to vote? What Act then allowed blacks to eventually vote no matter what?
15th Amendment (1870) granted the power of the vote to all citizens regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude, but blacks didn't really start voting until 1965, Voting Rights Act.
What amendment allowed people from the ages of 18 to 20 to vote?
In 1971, the 26th amendment gave 18 year olds the right to vote.
What factors (both individual and institutional) are likely to increase turnout? Decrease turnout?
People that live in the south are less likely to vote. People with deeper roots in their communities are more likely to vote. People that have a higher confidence in their understanding of the political issues are more likely to vote. People that have stronger pulls towards certain parties are more likely to vote. Men and women voting polls are about the same.
Does education increase or decrease voter turnout?
Increase
Does age increase or decrease voter turnout?
Increase
Are African Americans and Hispanics more or less likely to vote than whites?
less likely
Did decreasing the voting age to 18 years old increase or decrease the voter turnout?
Extending the voter franchise to 18 year olds has decreased the percentage. Voter eligibility has increased, but voter turnout has decreased.
Has voter turnout increased or decreased in the past couple of decades and why?
Turnout has decreased because fewer people have deep community roots, feel politically efficacious, or feel strongly about parties and candidates.
How do voters decide how they are going to vote?
A lot of people base their votes on past performance and the current incumbency and its’ performance. They also assess the issues and policy options. There are single-issue voters that feel very strongly about one issue and vote strictly based upon that one thing.
What's the largest indication of how someone will vote?
Party identification
What is the Motor Voter Law? Why is it important?
The National Voter Registration Act of 1993. The law requires states to allow citizens to register to vote when applying for or renewing their drivers’ licenses, to register by mail, or to receive mail registration forms and assistance in filling them out at state welfare offices. It also forbids states to purge voters from the rolls for failing to vote. It is important because this law added millions to the voter rolls, and analysts suggest that it has the potential to increase turnout by as much as ten percentage points.
Basing votes for a candidate or party on how successfully the candidate or party performed while in office.
performance voting
Voting for candidates based on their positions on specific issues, as opposed to their party or personal characteristics.
issue voting
An individual’s enduring affective or instrumental attachment to one of the political parties.
party identification
What are the basic components of a campaign?
A candidate
A message
A way to inform voters about both
A method of gauging public opinion by observing a small number of people brought together to discuss specific issues, usually under the guidance of a moderator.
focus group
When might a potential candidate decide NOT to run for office?
They may not run if they think they will not win or if they don't have enough support for their party.
The act of attacking an opposing candidate’s platform, past political performance, or personal characteristics. Negative ads exploit voters’ uncertainty inherent in the delegation of authority to powerful agents.
negative campaigning
_____________________________ came about when broadcast campaigning became popular because the government was afraid the campaigning would become more about money than anything else so they created laws.
Campaign Finance Reform
provided partial public funding for presidential campaigns and required full public reporting of and strict limits on all contributions and expenditures in federal elections. It also established a Federal Election Commission to enforce the law and to collect and publish detailed information on campaign contribution and expenditures.
FECA: Federal Election Campaign Act
What court case upheld the financial reporting requirements and contribution limits for campaigns?
Buckley v. Valeo
Money used by political parties for voter registration, public education, and voter mobilization. Until 2002, when Congress passed legislation outlawing soft money, the government had imposed no limits on contributions or expenditures for such purposes.
Soft money
What do candidates spend money on?
The House and Senate spend money on fund-raising, overhead costs, actual campaigning, electronic media advertising, persuasion mail, polling, and other media.
In presidential elections, what is the strategy for allocating campaign money?
They invest heavily in television advertising. Hundreds of millions on television time.

The usual strategy consists of two things: 1) Concentrate on states that polls indicate could go either way and that are populous enough to be worth winning and 2) Ignore states that are locked up by either side.
What is public financing of elections, and why is it controversial?
Public funding is when the tax payers’ money goes towards funding campaign trails. It is controversial because in order for this to happen each candidate has to be fully funded and that would end up costing tens of millions of dollars for the taxpayers to pay.
The ability of privileged outsiders, such as interest group representatives, to obtain a hearing from elected officials or bureaucrats.
access
A person who is running for elected office
candidate
Spending by the Democratic and Republican Party committees on behalf of individual congressional candidates.
coordinated spending
Campaign spending—by a person or organization for or against a political candidate—that is not controlled by or coordinated with any candidate’s campaign
independent spending
The central thematic statement of why voters ought to prefer one candidate over others
message in a political campaign
It is also known as “getting out the vote.” ______________ occurs when activists working for parties, candidates, or interest groups ask members of the electorate to vote.
mobilization
A seat in a state or district being contested by candidates, none of whom currently holds the office. Congressional seats become “open” when the incumbent dies or does not run for reelection.
open seat
A label carrying the party’s “brand name” incorporating the policy positions and past performance voters attribute to it.
party label
People who base their votes on candidates’ or parties’ positions on one particular issue of public policy, regardless of the candidates’ or parties’ positions on other issues.
single-issue voters