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49 Cards in this Set

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First Republic Dates

1792-1799

Second Republic Dates

1848-1852

Third Republic Dates

1876-1940


Longest Republic

Fourth Republic Dates

1946-1958

Fifth Republic Dates

1958-Present

English Land Market Boom

1580


Lords deprived peasants of rights of cultivation in open fields, yeoman took land from peasants

English Civil War

Commercially minded upper class and yeomen vs. King and the Old Order > beheaded Charles I


Not a class revolution/economic, religious, and constitutional issues


Changed law and social relationships: rural elites w/ capitalists > no medieval peasantry > became rural laborers, joined urban workers, got poor relief

Glorious Revolution

1688


Destruction of Absolute Monarchy in England > Committee of Lords (Parliament)


Capitalist bourgeoisie > unimpeded by strong monarch, resting on new army and bureaucracy helped transition to parliamentary democracy

Britain in 1700s

French Revolution halts talk of reform


Upper Class closes itself off

Moore's views on the capitalist class and how it changes government

growing capitalist class needed to protect its property rights and gain other freedoms, such as freedom to do international trade, without arbitrary interference by monarchy


voice in tax policy > legislation > parliamentary system


leads to a constitutional government

Royal Absolutism

1643 - 1789


The 3 Louis


Louis XIV: Versailles, continuation of feudal structure


Louis XV: major economic reform, emergence of middle class on trade and commerce


Louis XVI: Estates General > National Assembly, limited monarchy

The French Revolution

1789 (Storming of the Bastille) -


Robespierre and the Jacobins


Greatly influenced by French philosophers: Montesquieu and Rousseau



Law of the Suspects

Outlawed forms of thought and identity that did not associate with the Revolution or did associate with aristocracy, nobility, or those dismissed by the National Convention

Women's March on Versailles

Drove Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette from Versailles and placed them under house arrest

First Constitution in 1791

Attempted to combine monarchial power w/ democratic, legislation with a monarch's veto power

Confiscation of Church Property

1790


Tried to make up for large debt from various factors > kept reissuing payments

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

Caught attempting to escape > thought to be proof of conspiring w/ European powers to invade > Threats from Prussian gov't defending monarchy > Execution

Committee of Public Safety

1793-1794


Reign of Terror: Systematic execution of aristocracy and sympathizers by Sans Culottes


Also executed Robespierre's political rivals the Girondists (favored constitutional monarchy)


Totalitarian Democracy, Extreme Journalism


Ends with execution of Robespierre



First Napoleonic Empire

1804-1814


Came into power by military coup


1812: Lost War against Russia


Eventual exile of Napoleon (1814)

Restoration of Bourbon Monarchy

1804-1830


Louis XVIII > Charles X > Napoleon captures Paris


Battle of Waterloo: defeat of Napoleon

The Orleanist Monarchy

1830-1848


July Revolution > Moderates


Constitutional Monarchy: monarch and parliament

Revolution of 1848

Creation of the Second Republic


Ended w/ military coup of Napoleon III



Second Napoleonic Empire

1852-1870


Ended w/ Franco-Prussian War



Events of the Third Republic

Military Resistance to Germans in Paris


Paris Commune vs. Versailles Govt


Thiers and McHanon: monarchists


Boulanger Affair: strength of right-wing sentiments


The Dreyfuss Affair: anti-semitism in France

World War I

1914-1918


Extreme economic devastation and psychological devastation > polarization





Vichy France

1940-1944


Military Dictatorship under Germany: direct military occupation


Marshal Petain: pseudo-sovereign entity,


Charles de Gaulle: disbanded the Resistance resuming political standpoints





Factors of Fourth Republic

1946-1958


Strong National Assembly and Weak Executive


NA: Proportional Representation


Algerian Crisis > Disbandment of Republic

Beginning of the Fifth Republic

Charles de Gaulle


Strong Executive Powers


Presidentialism (Right): need for unity and strong leadership


Single-Member Districts


Plebiscitary Democracy: Referendums

Republicanism

Calls for weak executive and strong National Assembly


Motion of Censure


Will of the people > French Revolution

Motion of Censure

An asterisk on a bill that is to be put up by cabinet > bill is NOT passed > no confidence in govt / resignation


A parliament can choose not to vote on a bill and it will automatically become law > parliament stays in power, bill is passed, and motion of censure is null

Motion of Censure Requirements

1. Requires 10% of signatures


2. 48 Hour Waiting Period


3. Absolute Majority

Structure of Current French Government

President


Prime Minister


Constitutional Council: 9 Members


Cabinet


Parliament: National Assembly (Lower) and Senate (Upper) > Lower more powerful than upper



Current President of France

Francois Hollande

Current Prime Minister and Duties

Manuel Valls


Chooses the Cabinet

Current Leader of the National Front and Founder of the NF

Marine la Pen


Jean-Marie la Pen

National Assembly Structure

577 Members


Elected by 2 Round Voting

Senate Structure

348 Members


Half elected every 3 years


150,000 Grand Electors, Indirect Election > favors rural areas

Presidential Election

Run-off Voting

Prime Minister Election

Nominated by the Majority Party in the National Assembly and appointed by the President

Article 8

President designates Prime Minister as purely discretional act

Article 12

President may dissolve the parliament at any given time:


-must consult w/ council of ministers


-cannot be done twice in a single year

Article 16

President may declare a consitutional crisis and suspend laws and issue decrees


- Parliament must remain in session


- president must consult with its leaders

Article 15

President is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces

Article 5

President has authority over Constitutional and foreign affairs

Article 11

President may call a referendum


-on the proposal of the govt

Article 49, Section 1




Article 49, Section 2




Article 49, Section 3

-Cabinet and Prime Minister must submit policy agenda to National Assembly




-Difficult to pass a motion of censure (requirements)




-Parliament can pass on a bill and not vote, becomes law and Parl. stays in power

Article 20


Article 21

Sweeping authority over general and defense policy

Article 23

When elected to join Cabinet > must resign from the National Assembly

Article 44

The Blocked Vote: Can't propose any amendments, but must vote yes or no