• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is Communication?

It is the process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.

What kind of communication are we concerned with in this chapter?

Interpersonal communication

What is Interpersonal Communication?

The exchange of info between people. (ie. a one-on-one exchange between two individuals)

List the communication process model in order from Sender to Receiver

The Sender

1. Thinking

2. Encoding

3. Transmitting

The Receiver
1. Perceiving

2. Decoding

3. Understanding


4. Feedback

What is Effective communication?

Occurs when the right people receive the right information at the right time.

What is Ineffective communication?

- Violation of any of the three conditions of effective communication result in ineffective communication

In theory, organizational communication could stick to a strict system of communication. What is this called?

Chain of Command

Define "Chain of command"

Lines of authority and formal reporting relationships.

What are the three necessary forms of communication through this system?

1. Downward communication

2. Upward communication

3. Horizontal communication

What is Downward communication? Give an example

- Flows from the top of the org to the bottom.

Ex. A vice-president of production might instruct a plant manager to gear up for manufacturing a new product, the plant manager would then tell supervisors, who instruct production workers.

Vice-president --> manager --> supervisor --> workers

What is Upward communication? Give an example

-Flows from bottom of the org. to the top.

Ex. Chemical engineer found some new formula, pass this on to research and development manager, which informs vice-president.

Worker --> Manager --> Vice-president

What is Horizontal Communication?

- Between departments or units, usually as a way of coordinating effort.

What are some Deficiencies in the Chain of Command?

1. Informal Communication

2. Filtering

3. Slowness

Informal communication is beneficial because...

- It can help organizational performance

- Plays a role in the social well-being of the organization members

- Can harm the organization - gossip, rumors.

What is Filtering?

The tendency for a message to be watered down (reduced, altered) or stopped during transmission

What are the two kinds of filtering?

Upward - From subordinates to superiors

Downward - From superiors to subordinates

When would upward filtering be used. Give an example.

- Occurs when employees are afraid that their boss will use info against them

When would downward filtering be used?

Often due to time pressures or simple lack of attention to detail.

Provide a sinister example of downward filtering

A manager who feels that an up-and-coming employee could be promoted, might filter crucial info to make the subordinate look bad at a staff meeting.

What is slowness?

When the message that's communicated takes longer to process.

What can help with slowness?

Cross-functional teams and employee empowerment can be used to short-circuit strict chain of commands

What are some aspects of info free flow?

1. Voice

2. Silence

3. Mum Effect

What is voice?

The constructive expression of disagreement or concern about work unit or organizational practices

What is Silence?

Withholding relevant information.

What is the mum effect?

The tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others.

What free flow aspect is considered a form of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour?

Voice - It should be encouraged

What can result in a climate of silence?


We talked about informal communication, name a big informal network discussed.

The Grapevine

What is "Grapevine" ?

An organization's informal communication network. It is information passed by word of mouth, notes, emails, fax..etc

What are 2 distinguishing features about grapevine?

1. There can be several grapevine systems.

2. Grapevine can transmit relevant info & gossip

How accurate is grapevine? (what percentage of info carried is correct)

75 percent of the non-controversial organization-related info is correct.

Who participates may partake in Grapevine? What are factors that contribute to transmitter of info?

1) Personality characteristics play a role
2) The nature of the info

3) The physical location of employees

What are some Pros and Cons of the Grapevine?



>Can keep employees informed about important matters.

> Can be used to probe employee reactions to proposed changes. Give management an opportunity to refine or change plans before commitment

>If extends beyond the company, can be a useful tool for recruiting.



>Can become a problem when used as a pipeline for rumors rumors are susceptible to sever distortion from person to person, cannot me verified as accurate. Wasteful energy, negative atmosphere

What is a rumor?

An unverified belief that is in general circulation

What is Jargon?

Specialized languages used by job holders or members of particular occupations or organizations.

What is COMVOC?

Common vocabulary

Jargon can be a barrier to clear communication to whom?

- Between departments

- to outsiders

- to new organizational members

Define body language:

Non-verbal communication by means of a sender's bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location

What are the two main messages sent via body language:

1. The extent to which the sender likes and is interested in the receiver

2. The sender's view concerning the relative status of the sender and the receiver.

Senders communicating that they like/are interested in the receiver tend to...

- Position themselves close

- Touch

- Maintain eye contact

- Lean forward

- Direct torso

Senders communicating they are higher status than the receiver tend to...

-act more relaxed:

casual placement of arms/legs, reclining position, lack of fidgeting

What has research shown about body language during interviews?

- Positive language (smiling, eye contact, gesturing) if not overdone can give an edge to an applicant.

Non-verbal communication can also occur through the use of various objects such as:

Props, artifacts, and costumes

What does research say about 'decor' in a workplace?

It appears to have some validity. Also that strangers were able to accurately infer certain Big Five personality traits of the occupant of business offices.

What does clothing communicate?

Competence, seriousness and promotability.

What does research reveal about clothing and communication?

That people associate various clothing brands with different personality characteristics, and that proper clothing may enhance self-esteem, and self-confidence to a noticeable degree.

Gender differences in communication revolve around the...

"One up, One down" position.

i.e. The predominant male tactic leads to a one up position. The predominant female tactic leads to a one down position.

Males communicate to:

Enforce status/power

Females communicate to:

build relationships

This difference can have a negative impact on:

Recognition, rewards and overall careers of Women!

The differences between male and female communication are the following:


-Getting credit/confidence and boasting, concealing doubt

- Asking questions (seen as a weakness)

- Ritual opposition (challenge others point of view)

- Managing up (Spending more time communicating with superiors)


-Indirectness in giving orders

- Appraisal = compliments instead of critique

- Feedback (buffer criticism with praise)

- Apologies (seen as a weakness)

What are the variability areas of cross-cultural communication?

- Language

- Non-verbal communication

- Etiquette and politeness

- Social conventions

What can be said about languages and communication?

-Communication is generally better when individuals or groups share the same values and common language.

-Speaking the same language does not guarantee perfect communication

What are some differences in non-verbal communication across cultures?

1. Facial Expressions - Most culture accurately detect this

2. Gestures - Do not translate well across culture.

3. Gaze - xcultural differences to which it is considered suitable to look directly in the eye

4. Touch

What is Cultural Context?

The cultural information that surrounds a communication episode.

According to research what countries are high in cultural context?


-Arab countries

-Asian countries

-Central/South America

What countries are lower in cultural context?

-Northern Europe


-North American

What is do people in high-context cultures tend to do?

They are nosy. They want to know about you and your company in great detail. Getting to the point quickly is not favoured.