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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Regional ACs - importance and source
- 2/3 of Burgundies production
- Lesser vineyards
declassified wines due to excessive yields
- Come from anywhere in Burgundy
Regional ACs in ascending order (10)
- Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire AC
- Bourgogne Aligote AC
- Bourgogne Passetoutgrains Ac
- Bourgogne Rouge AC
- Bourgogne Blanc AC
- Bourgogne Hautes-Cotes de Nuits AC
- Bourgogne Hauts-Cotes de Beaune AC
- Bourgogne Cote Chalonnaise AC
- Macon Villages
- Macon Villages + Village name AC
Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire AC
- Mainly Gamay
- Some white produced (Melon de Bourgogne/Aligote blend)
Bourgogne Aligote AC
- Chablis, some Cote d'Or and Cote Chalonnaise villages produce
- High acid
- Low alcohol
- Village of Bouzeron has its own appellation for Aligote
Bourgogne Passetoutgrains AC
- literally 'chuck it all together'
- Blend of Pinot Noir and Gamay
- Min 30% Pinot Noir
Bourgogne Rouge AC and Bourgogne Blanc AC
Pinot Noir for red
Chardonnay for white
Bourgogne Hauts-Cotes de Nuits AC
Bourgogne Hauts-Cotes de Beaune AC
- Red and white
- Made by 18 villages in the hills behind the cote
- Lighter in body and less concentrated than Cote de Nuits
- Most made in co-operative cellar in Beaune
Bourgogne Cote Chalonnaise AC
Covers Rully, Givry, Montagny, Mercurey and some surrounding villages
Communal ACs - rules and standards
- Do not include word 'Bourgogne'
- Step up from regional ACs
- Higher minimum abv than regional ACs
Burgundy AC levels in ascending order
- Regional ACs (eg Borgogne Blanc)
- Communal ACs (eg Chablis)
- Commune ACs (eg Nuits St Georges)
- Single Vineyards ACs (Premier and Grand Crus)
Pinot Noir in Burgundy
- Grown throughout Burgundy (except Beaujolais)
- Mutated clones with different yields, ripening times, flavours and quality potential
- grey rot risk
- Medium to full body
- Soft tannins
Pinot Noir in Burgundy is prone to
Grey rot due to small tight grape clusters
Pinot Noir Mutations
Mutates easily producing clones with different:
- yields
- ripening times
- flavours
- quality potential
Pinot Noir flavours and structures
- Young PN shows red fruits (strawberry, cherry, raspberry)
- Matures to vegetal, savoury and gamey notes
- Medium to full bodied
- Low tannins
Chardonnay in Burgundy
Technique and three different regional styles
Non-aromatic ripe fruit works well with barrel ageing and less stirring giving rich, creamy, buttery wine.
- Lean, mineral and high acid in Chablis
- Complex and expressive in Cote d'Or
- Full bodied, rich and ripe in Macon
Aligote wines
Bourgogne Aligote and Cremant de Bourgogne

Often thin, high acid wines
Minor white grapes of Burgundy
- Pinot Blanc
- Pinot Gris (locally called Pinot Beurot)
- Melon de Bourgogne (Muscadet)
- Sacy
- Sauvignon Blanc
All white grapes of Burgundy
- Chardonnay
- Aligote
- Pinot Blanc
- Pinot Gris (locally called Pinot Beurot)
- Melon de Bourgogne (Muscadet)
- Sacy
- Sauvignon Blanc
Minor red grapes of Burgundy
- Gamay (passetoutgrains and grand ordinarie)
- Cesar
- Tressot
All red grapes of Burgundy
- Pinot Noir
- Gamay (passetoutgrains and grand ordinarie)
- Cesar
- Tressot
Cote de Beaune-Villages AC
- Must be red
- All villages except Aloxe-Corton, Beaune, Pommard and Volnay (16 eligible villages)
- Enables blending between villages producing large volume blend better than individual components.
Cote de Nuits-Villages AC
- Can be red or white
- Very minor villages only
- Enables blending between villages producing large volume blend better than individual components.
Commune ACs
- Village appellations
- Under 1/4 of production
- Just village name stated
- If all from one vineyard (but not premier or grand cru status) can name vineyard after commune in smaller letters - lieu dit
Burgundy production breakdown
- 2/3 Regional ACs
- 1/4 Communal ACs
- 11% Premier Crus
- 1% Grand Crus
Single vineyard AC facts and figures
- Vineyard name attached to plot of land
- Registered in nearest town hall
- Each Grand Cru vineyard has its own AC
- Premier Crus don't have own AC, but are denominations of their appellation
Number of Grand Crus
- 33 Grand Crus in total (32 Cote d'Or, 1 in Chablis)
Number of Premier Cru Vineyards
Over 560
Chablis region
Valley of Serein river and surrounding hills
- Vines planted on slope contours
- Aspersion sprinklers, heaters and helicopters against frost
Chablis grapes
Chardonnay only permitted variety
Chablis AC
- Austere
- High acid
- Green apples and greengage
- Can have stoney minerality
Chablis premier cru AC
Wines and number of vineyards
- 17 main vineyards (sub areas can use own domains for AC)
- Well exposed slopes
- Riper fruits
- More body and concentration
- Creamy texture
- Integrated acid
- Minerality
4 Famous Chablis Premier Crus
- Fourchaume
- Vaillons
- Montee de Tonnerre
- Montmains
17 main vineyards total and sub areas can use own domaines for AC
Chablis Grand Cru AC
quick facts
- 7 Vineyards form one Grand Cru
- Hillside across from town of Chablis
- Ferment or age small portion in oak (integrates as wine ages)
- Needs ageing to show at its best
Chablis Grand Cru AC
tasting note
- Smokey, complex flavours
- High acid
- long, mouthwatering finish due to acid
Chablis Grand Cru AC
- Les Clos
- Vaudesir
- Valmur
- Les Preuses
- Bougros
- Blanchot
- Grenouilles
* brand name La Moutonne also has Grand Cru AC status *
Cote d'Or soils
limestone and marl
Key Cotes de Nuits Communes
- Marsannay
- Fixin
- Gevrey Chambertin
- Morey-St Denis
- Chambolle-Musigny
- Vougeot
- Vosne-Romanee
- Grand Echezeaux
- Nuits-Saint-Georges
Grand Cru Reds
All but Corton are Cote de Nuits
Cotes de Nuits villages with NO Grand Crus
- Marsanny
- Fixin
- Nuits-Saint-George
Gevrey Chambertin Grand Cru
- Chambertin
Morey-St Denis Grand Cru
Clos de Lambrays
Chambolle-Musigny Grand Cru
Le Musigny (RED)
Musigny Blanc (WHITE only her Cru white in Cotes de Nuits
Vougeot Grand Cru
Clos de Vougeot (RED)
Vosnee-Romanee Grand Cru
- Romanee-Conti (RED)
Grand Echezeaux
Echezeaux (RED)
White Cotes de Nuits Grand Cru
- Musigny Blanc (of Chambolle Musigny)
Bourgogne Passetoutgrains
AC for blend of min 30% Pinot Noir and Gamay
Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire AC
- Red and White
- Mainly Gamay based reds
- Some Aligote and Melon de Bourgogne blends
% of Burgundy that is domaine bottled rather than going through negociants or co-ops
% of Burgundy bottled through negociants or co-ops
Bourgogne Cote Chalonnais AC
- Covers Rully, Givry, Mercurey and Montagne with some surrounding vineyards
- All are Acs in their own right too
Some communal appellations of Maconnaise
- St-Veran
- Pouilly Fuisse
Communal Acs are?
- Village appellations eg Puilly-Fuisse or Cote de Beaune-Villages, Chablis
- Higher min abv than regional Acs
Vineyard in smaller letters after commune?
- Single vineyard but not premier or grand cru status
Volume of commune ACs
Around 1/4 of total production e.g. Nuits-Saint-Georges
Number of grand crus
32 in cote d'or and 1 in chablis (33 total)
AC law for grand vs premier cru
- Each grand cru has own AC
- Premier crus are denominations of appellations and don't have own ACs
Grand Cru production scale
No more than 1% of Burgundy total
Which is higher, grand or premier cru?
Grand cru!
Brand name Chablis Grand Cru AC
La Mouton
Cote d'Or Hills
Morvan Hills behind the vineyards protect
Cote de Beaune wine style
Lighter bodied Pinot Noir than Cote d'Nuits and fine dry Chardonnay
Key Cote de Beaune Villages (12)
- Aloxe-Corton (r&w)
- Pernard-Vergelesses (r&w)
- Savigny-Les-Beaune (r&w)
- Beaune (r&w)
- Pommard (RED only)
- Volnay (RED only)
- Mersault (r&w)
- Saint-Aubin (r&w)
- Auxey-Duresses (r&w)
- Puligny-Montrachet (r&w)
- Chassagne-Montrachet (r&w)
- Santenay
Red only villages of Cote de Beaune
- Pommard
- Volnay
Grand Cru status white wines of Cote de Beaune
- Puligny-Montrachet (Le Montrachet & Batard-Montrachet)
- Chassagne-Montrachet (Le Montrachet)
- Aloxe-Corton
- Cote de Beaune
- Grand Cru AC vineyards of Corton (RED) and Corton-Charlmagne (WHITE)
- Cote de Beaune
- White Grand Cru vineyards of:
Le Montrachet
- Cote de Beaune
- White Grand Cru vineyards of:
Le Montrachet
- Crists-Batard-Montrachet
Puligny Montrachet
- Cote de Beaune white grand cru so long it falls into two villages: Chassagne-Montrachet and Puligny-Montrachet
Only Grand Cru red found in the Cote de Beaune, all others are in Cote d'Nuits
Morey-St Denis
- Cote de Nuits
- Red Grand Crus inc Clos de Lambrays, Clos de Tart, Clos Saint Denis
- Cote de Nuits
- Red grand crus Le Musigny and Bonne Marres
- White Grand Cru Musigny Blanc
Cote de Beaune viticulture and vinification
- low yields, perfect soil, drainage and exposure
- Fermentation, battonage and aging in French oak produce complexity
Light acidic whites, sparkling and red region in cote Chalonnais
Light acidic whites, sparkling and red region in Cote Chalonnaise
Cote Chalonnaise climate
Similar to Cote d'Or (northern continental)
- Warmer than Cote d'Or with higher altitude
Chunky, pricey reds with a high reputation
Mercurey AC (Cote Chalonnaise)
Cote Chalonnaise AC mainly pro ducting light easy reds
Givry AC
Givry AC
Cote Chalonnaise AC mainly pro ducting light easy reds (Pinot Noir only)
Montagny AC
- Cote Chalonnaise white only AC (Chardonnay only)
Cote Chalonnaise white only AC
Montagny AC
Maconnaise soils
Factor protecting much of Burgundy from higher rain fall
Massif Central
Burgundy climate
- Northern continental
- Severe winters, short warm summers
- relatively low annual rainfall but often at vintage causing grey rot
- Spring frost and summer hail a problem (especially in Chablis)
Maconnaise grape plantings
- 70% Chardonnay
- 30% red is mainly gamay
Maconnaise trade structure
Large co-ops are important
Macon AC vs Macon Superior AC
Superior requires 0.5% extra potential alcohol
Wine style of Macon AC (note)
- crisp acidity
- citrus and apple characters
- creaminess from Malo
Macon Villages & Macon named villages
- White only
- 43 villages
- More ripeness and body than Macon AC
- Good value for money
- Wine from one or a combination of villages
2 important Macon villages
- Lugny
- Vire
more ripeness and body than Macon ac
- White wine only AC in Macon
- Natural amphitheatre sun traps
Pouilly-Fuisse wine style
- Full bodied white, ripe, peach, melon, nutty and buttery from barrel aging
Full bodied white, ripe, peach, melon, nutty and buttery from barrel aging
Pouilly-Fuisse wine style
Pouilly-fuisse soil
Pouilly-Fuisse villages with their own appellations
- Vire-Clesse AC
- Pouilly-Vinzelles AC
- Pouilly-Loche AC
- Saint-Veran AC
Burgundy winters
Burgundy summers
Short and warm
Soil factors in Burgundy
- Slope steepness
- Slope direction
- depth
- drainage
- heat retention
- mineral content
Main Burgundy soil for Chardonnay
Calcareous clay
Main Burgundy soil for Pinot Noir
Limestone and marl
Best Burgundy site
- mid slope
- shallow soil forces roots to penetrate limestone base and acts as suntrap
Burgundy planting density
Dense, up to 12,000 inter per hectare
Burgundy trellising
Guyot system training on low wires
Burgundy pest and disease threats
- Red spider mite
- fanleaf virus (Chardonnay is prone)
- grey rot (Pinot Noir)
Burgundy cellars
usually heated to prevent stuck ferments
Burgundy red fermentation
Common techniques:
- cold soaking before ferment
- punching down or pumping over in open topped fermenters
- destemming common not universal
- 16 - 18 months in oak
- Only a proportion of new oak used
Cote d'or common red vilification technique
Cold soaking before fermentation
Cote d'Or and Cote Chalonnaise reds fermentation technique
Punching down or pumping over in open topped fermenters.
Burgundy red destemming
- Total destemming common
- Some use partial stem inclusion during fermentation to provide tannins and aid draining through the cap.
Burgundy red barrel agieng
16 to 18 months is common and only a proportion of the wine is aged in new oak
Burgundy white winemaking
- depends on style and region
- stainless steel or oak vessels
- Malo encouraged if soft, creamy style is required
- Barrel ageing may or may not occur
Viticulture in Beaujolais
Freestanding gobelet gamay (some wire trellising in east and west)
mainly hand harvesting but machine permitted in some none cru sites
Beaujolais cru vinification
A few producers in the crus use conventional vilification with some oak ageing, usually in large casks
Semi carbonic maceration
extracts colour and kirsch, raspberry, cinnamon, bubblegum and banana flavours with limited tannin
Cru vineyard harvesting
Must be manual
Beaujolais vinification
semi carbonic maceration is common
Skin contact varies by style
Beaujolais Cru soils
Granitic schist
Gamay has an affinity with gamay
Beaujolais white
Less than 1% of production
Beaujolais gamay wines
fruity with light tannins
Southern Beaujolais soils
Eastern Beaujolais soils
Alluvial Saone river plains