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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Describe, using examples, the 4 PrimaryFunctions of Management

Planning – is the definingof goals and deciding which tasks and resources are needed to carry out theattainment of the goals.

Organising – is assigninggroups and people to specific tasks.

Leading – is the influencingand motivating people towards the achievement of goals.

Controlling – is the monitoring, adjusting andkeeping the employees on track towards the organisation’s goals

Describe, using examples,the 3 types of Management Skills

Technical Skills – arehaving the knowledge and capabilities to perform specific tasks in specificfields.

Human Skills – are basedaround relationships within the organisation and are the manager’s ability towork with different employees in a team situation to produce effective andefficient outputs.

Conceptual Skills – are themanger’s ability to see the organisation as a whole and the interrelationshipbetween different fields and parts of the business.

Describe, using examples,the 2 sources of Personal Power and the 3 sources of Positional Power.

Personal Power

Referent Power – is whenthe director has a charismatic personality that influences the followerEg – The director asks the follower to do something and the followerdoes it because the director is charismatic and convincing and the followerdoesn’t mind doing it for them.

Expert Power- iswhen the director has special knowledge in a particular field and the followerlistens to them because they know what they are doing an they trust them. Eg – Sky diving: the director is theperson who knows how to skydive because they have been trained and the followeris the person who does the sky diving with them.


Legitimate power– is when the followers give the director the right to influence theirbehaviour.Eg- when amanager tells an employee what to do and the employee has to listen to them asthe manager has authority over them.

Reward power –is when the director has the right to give them (the follower) a reward.Eg- an employeewill be more likely to do what the director tells them to do if there is anincentive such as a promotion or special training.

CoercivePower- is when the director has the right to punish the follower.Eg – Thebehaviour of the follower is influenced because he or she doesn’t want to bepunished – in this case, not given a promotion or special training.

Describe, using examplesthe difference between “Leadership” and “Management"

Management isthe planning, organising, leading and controlling, whereas Leading isinfluencing people.

Managers tend to control and direct people and resources to accomplish goals,whereas, Leaders influence people and set direction and vision for the team tofollow.

Managers – usepositional power to influence employees and focuses on systems and structureand rational consulting.

Leaders – usepersonal power to influence people’s behaviour and focus on being inspiring,imaginative and flexible.

Describe, using examples, the 4 aspects ofLeadership that Leadership Theories focus our attention on

1.What type of Leader they are:Eg – they could be a democratic eader who listens to others and values theiropinions and uses empowerment and personal power. OR they could be anautocratic leader who uses positional power and sees themselves above everyoneelse.

2.What type of followers they areleading: Eg – A follower could be critical (indepentant), uncritical (acceptswithout question), active (fully engaged and participate), or passive (needconstant prodding).Leaders need to take into account what type of followers they have when theyare deciding on their leadership style.

3. Context: is all about the environmentand situation that the leader is leading. Eg – if the leader is in the army it would be better to use a task orientatedapproach using the legitimate positional power.

4. Relationship: is all aboutseeing leadership as a service. Servant Leadership – is upside-down leadership, where the leader fulfils thegoals of the subordinates.

Explain the Impact of the Hawthorne Studies onManagement thinking about Employee Productivity

The Hawthorne Studies were a set of experiments on workerproductivity.

The workers were tested under different lighting levels, different periods ofrest and different work groups.

The conclusion was that physical experiments like lighting and rest periods’didn’t affect productivity but rather relationships with co-workers have thelargest affect.

Impact was that there was a major shift in thinking about employee productivityto include human relationships. These relationships include with managers andwith peers.

Compare and contrast McGregor’s Theory X andTheory Y assumptions about workers

Theory X – more classicalapproach where the organisation was seen as a machine. People didn’t enjoywork, employees purely worked for money and manager’s needed to controlemployees with rues and restrictions.

Theory Y – took a morehumanistic perspective where employees had a will to work, enjoyed work andthey got a lot out of it, they had ambitions so wanted to work towards them.

Describe 2 charcateristics of the stimuli and 2characteristics of the perceiver that can influence what an individual employerwill perceive about a prospective employee in and employment interview


Contrast – whenthe stimuli stand out more from the background. Eg – a person may have had a differentor higher training and qualifications from the rest of the people applying.

Repetition –when repeated stimuli tend to attract more attention.Eg – the perceiver has already previously interviewed the stimuli before whichmeans they are familiar with them.


Needs & Motivation – peopletend to notice stimuli if they provide a way to satisfy their needs.Eg – the manager is interviewing someonefor an IT job and only one of the stimuli has the correct experience, they aremore likely to be chosen.

Personality – when the stimuli reinforcesthe perceivers personality.Eg – the perceiver is more likely to hire someone with a similar personality tothem than someone who is completely different.

Describe, using examples, the 3 Factors that canInfluence the Attribution an Employee may make about a colleague’s behaviour

Distinctiveness of acolleague: Eg – if they are doing something unusual such as crying.

Consensus is a factor that everyone does: Eg – looking worried after a roughmeeting with the boss, or having a break after working extremely hard.

Consistency is something someonedoes all the time: Eg- having a coffee when you’re tired.

Describe, using examples, the differencesbetween Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

IntrinsicMotivation comes from within you; you want to do it for yourself.Eg – you feelreally good about yourself and proud when you do well on a test.

ExtrinsicMotivation comes from an external source.Eg – your parents tell you that they will payfor some of your student loan if you do well in exams. This motivates you totry your hardest.

Describe, using examples, the differencesbetween Herzberg’s motivating and hygiene factors

Herzberg came up with a2-factor theory.Hygiene Factors, which are what dissatisfies us.Motivating Factors, which are what motivates us.

Hygiene Factors– include working conditions, pay, job security, company policies, supervisorsand interpersonal relationships.Eg – if the employee is working in poor working conditions or their pay ispoor, then this will dissatisfy the employee.

MotivatingFactors – include achievement, recognition, responsibility, work itself andpersonal growth. Eg – if anemployee gets recognition for something that they have done well.

Describe, using examples, 4 causes of stress inthe workplace

Stress can be defined as aphysiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical orphysiological demands on an individual.

1) Task Demands: having tocomplete a task with a deadline.

2) Physical Demands: The space,air, heat you are working in.

3) Role Demands: there could be arole conflict, as in what role is more important for you to put first.

4) Interpersonal Demands: If therewas a bad relationship between colleagues.

Describe, using examples,“vertical teams,” “horizontal teams,” a “task force,” “virtual teams.”

Vertical Teams: are a formof nature and have a hierarchy structure, with a leader above the rest of theteam. Eg – a café, the manager is above all the other employees.

Horizontal Teams: consistof members of the same Hierarchal level ad is designed to deal with tasks thatoccur regularly or just on-off thing. Eg – Morningstar – a food processingcompany with no hierarchy as each department sends letters to the otherdepartments telling them what to do.

A Task Force: a temporaryteam or committee formed to solve a specific short-term problem, involvingseveral departments. Eg – the making of a movie, where the director, actors,film crew etc., come together just for the film.

Virtual Teams: use computertechnology and software so that geographically distant members can collaborateon projects and reach common goals. E.g. – when a company uses Skype formeetings with people throughout the world.

Describe, using examples,2 Channels of Communication that have HIGH LEVELs of Richness, and 2 channelsof Communication that have LOW LEVELs of Richness.

2 Channels of High LevelRichness:

Face-to-Face & Skype.These 2 channels are richas a lot of information is able to be passed through and they enable bothparties to be engaged and increased chance of a greater understanding betweenparties.

2 Channels of Low LevelRichness:

Emailing & TextingBoth of these are low level because non-verbalcommunication factors, such as, facial expression, voice, posture and dresscannot be interpreted

Describe, using examples, the seven elements ofthe Communication process

Sender – the person who is trying tocommunicate the message to the other person.

Message - whatthe sender wants to convey

Encoder – when the sender puts the message intoa form that the receiver can understand.

Channel – how they communicated the message(face-to-face , email, text, etc.)

Receiver – person who receives the message

Decode – the receiver then decodes what themessage is saying

Feedback – Receiver then gives the messengerfeedback

Describe 5 Behaviours of aneffective listener

- Resist Distractions

- Find areas of interest

- Listen actively

- Responsive

- Judge content not delivery

Describe using examples, 5 aspects ofbody-language we use to communicate non-verbally

Facial Expression, Voice,Mannerisms, Posture, Dress.

Eg. If a manager was telling off an employeetheir facial expression would be angry, their voice would be low and loud. This mannerisms would be using their hands while they talk. Posture would be stiffand straight and their dress would be professional.

Describe, using examples, 4 Individual barriersto communication

Interpersonal – someone’sattitude towards someone else.Eg. If you like someone you are more likely to listen to thembetter.

Channel Selection – the waypeople choose to communicateEg. As texting has low channel richness, the messages are foten and easilymisinterpreted.

Semantics – different ways ofunderstanding things.Eg. Australians – thongs. NZer’s – jandals

Inconsistent Cues – Eg. Someoneis angry but laughs, the receiver of the information may become confused of themessage.

Describe, using examples, 5 visible artefacts ofan organisation’s culture

Slogans: Mcdonalds – “Imlovin it”

Job Definitions &Descriptions: Mcdonalds server.

Stories: How the businesscame to be, eg. Orphan’s Aid.

Symbols: Nike Tick

Rituals: Burger king have trainings and lunchesfor new employees

Describe, giving examples, the 4 Main IndustrySectors for Classifications

A sector is an area of economic activity in which businesses orother organisations share a market place or produce a similar product orservice.

The Primary Sector:gathers the raw materials.Eg. Orchards in CentralOtago.

The Manufacturing Sector:produces the goods. Eg. Sistema Plastics.

The Service Sector: sellsthe finished goods.Eg. Farmers

Government, Education& Health: provides goods and services for the community. Eg. Retirement homes,churches.

Describe, using examples, the 3 Main OwnershipSectors

Private sectors – owned byindividuals, families or shareholders and all of the the profits aredistributed back to the owners.Eg. Private – mostbusinesses – Caper’s Café.

Public Sectors – either local ornational and are essentially owned by the citizens of NZ.Eg. Nationally, the Govt.owns Solid Energy so we as citizens of NZ own it. - Locally, the Dunedin CityCouncil owns the Dunedin Airport.

CommunitySectors – owned by the people involved.Eg. a sports club where players pay aregistration fee to be involved

Describe, using examples, the 3 Main MOTIVATIONSectors

FOR PROFIT: the motivationsbehind are purely to make a profit to live or retire early, etc. This is whythese sectors are set up. Eg. A For-Profit org. isCapers Café

FOR BENEFITS (not-forprofit) – provide a service in the community for those who need it. Eg. A Foodbank

BOTH – Eg. Just Food Café provides a for-benefitservice but uses another business to make money to provide for that

Discuss, using examples, the impact of using anOpen-Systems Perspective to think about the organisation

A system is made up ofirrelatable parts that have to work together as a whole.

An open-system’s perspectiveisn’t just thinking about what are the inputs and the outputs, it is thinkingabout the interaction inside and the interaction with the external environment.

IMPACT – means you’re notjust thinking about what happens within the organisation, you’re thinking aboutall of the outside things outside of your control that could affect yourbusiness. Eg. If there is an earthquake, and part of theorganisation has to be shut down the environment has impacted negatively on theorganisation

Discuss using examples, the 6 dimensions of theorganisations General Environment

Technology: advances intechnology that affect the business positively

Economical: that economicalgrowth increases consumer’s confidence and so they tend to spend more-increasing demand of the organisation.

International: if a businesswants to expand overseas then they need to be aware of the different culturesand demands for products.

Legal/Political: taxes andregulations that the business has to abide by to stay within the law.

Sociocultural: types oflifestyle, age of people, who is the business’s target market?

Environment: natural disasters – earthquake canaffect the running or production of the business.

Describe, using examples, the 4 Dimensions ofthe Organisation’s TASK Environment

Customers: people whoconsume the goods of the business.

Suppliers: people whoprovide the business with the goods to sell.

Competitors: Otherbusinesses that sell similar or the same products.

Labour Market: people whoare available for hire.


Describe, using examples, the 2 basic strategiesan organisation van adopt for dealing with ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY

Either: Adaption or Influence different parties to be on their side

Adapt—The organisationcould become part of an inter-organisation partnership.

Influence different parties– they could lobby in parliament to change legislation in their favour.

Define ethics and explain how ethical behaviourrelates to behaviour governed by law and free choice

Ethics are the code ofmoral principles and values that governs the behaviour of a person or a groupwith respect to what is right or wrong.

Ethics is the grey areabetween law and free choice.The law is set, and arerules that are not allowed to be broken; or consequences.

However, there are some things that are notillegal that people still think is morally wrong and therefore do not behave inthis “wrong” way. Although some people may break the rules because they thinkit is morally ok. The behaviour of the person depends on what is personallyright and wrong based on their perspective

Explain, using examples, UTILITARIAN,INDIVIDUALISM, MORAL-RIGHTS, and JUSTICE APPROACHES, for Ethical DecisionMaking

Utilitarian: is when theperson makes their decision based on what is going to do the greatest good forthe most amount of people.

Individualism: is when theindividual makes the decisions based on their own personal long-term interests,which leads to the greater good and honesty and integrity.

Moral-Rights: when thedecision is made based on the one that best maintains the rights of peopleaffected by them. It protects people’s rights to privacy, free-speech, life andsociety, free consent due process and freedom of conscience.

Justice: is when thedecision is made based on equity fairness and impartially.

Eg. Equal pay for equalwork, or procedurally for example, the same rules are consistent for everyoneand compensatory, for example the person gets compensated fairly for the harmthey have been caused.

Explain, using examples, the 3 outcomes ofsustainable development

Sustainable development isabout seeking to meet the needs and aspirations of the present withoutcompromising the ability to meet those of the future. This is broken down into3 areas:

1.Environment outcomes: looks atreducing waste, energy and pollution.

2. Social Outcomes: looks at theeffects on communities, customers, employees, families and suppliers.

3. Economic & FinancialOutcomes: looks at the internal organisation and whether they have made profitor received funding, as well as the external environment adding value forothers.

Eg. A sustainable organisation is the Surfboardmanufacturers, Clark Foam. When looking at their outcomes for sustainabledevelopment. For the environment they have reduced waste and chemicaluse, socially they have created jobs through an increased market andfinancially they have made a profit for the company through an increased marketas well as getting a number of networks.

Describe, using examples, the key questionsassociated with the 3 Levels of Strategy

1. Corporate-LevelStrategy: The level of strategy concerned with thequestion: “What business are we in?” –it relates to the organisation as a whole and the combination of business unitsand product lines that make it up.Eg. Cookie time, the core business is production and distribution of cookies.

2. Business-LevelStrategy: The level of strategy concerned with thequestion: “How do we compete?” - it relates to each business unit or productline within the organization (such as new product development, advertising).

3. Functional-Level Strategy: The level of strategy concerned with thequestion: “How do we support thebusiness-level strategy?” – it relates to all of the organisations majordepartments.Eg. The functional-level strategy for NutriSystems marketing department is tofeature real-life customers in direct response print and TV adds that steerdieters to the company’s website