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66 Cards in this Set

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chemical signals that are secretedinto the circulatory system and communicate regulatory messages within the body

endocrine system

secretes hormones that coordinate slowerbut longer-acting responses including reproduction, development, energymetabolism, growth, and behavior

nervous system

conveys high-speedelectrical signals along specialized cells called neurons; these signalsregulate other cells

chemical signals

Function to relay information


2.Local regulators




types of chemical signals (5)

endocrine signaling

paracrine signaling

autocrine signaling

synaptic signaling

neuroendocrine signaling


secretedinto extracellular fluids by endocrinecells reach their targets via thebloodstream

endocrine glands

ductless and secrete hormonesdirectly into the surrounding fluid

exocrine glands

have ducts and secrete ontobody surfaces


-mediates responses to stimuli

-regulates growth and development

functions of endocrine signaling (3)

local regulators

molecules that act over shortdistances, reaching target cells solely bydiffusion.

paracrine signaling

the target cells lie near the secretingcells

autocrine signaling

the target cell is also the secretingcell


neurons form specialized junctionswith target cells


neuronssecrete molecules that diffuse short distances andbind to receptors on target cells


specializedneurosecretory cells secrete molecules that travel to target cells viathe bloodstream


chemicalsthat are released into the environment

- used for markingtrails leading to food, defining territories, warning of predators, andattracting potential mates

local regulators

secretedmolecules that link neighboring cells or directly regulate the secreting cell


local regulator that plays a role in immunity

growth factors

local regulator that plays a role in cell growth anddifferentiation

nitric oxide

local regulator that causes dilation of blood vessels, canalso act as a neurotransmitter


local regulators in the immune system, they promote feverand inflammation and intensify the sensation of pain. They also regulate the formation of bloodclots.




classes of hormones (3)

polypeptides and amines

water-soluble hormones


lipid-soluble hormones


_____________ hormonesare secreted by exocytosis, travel freely in the bloodstream,and bind to cell-surfacereceptors


____________ hormonesdiffuse across cell membranes, travel in the bloodstream boundto transport proteins, anddiffuse through the membrane of target cells

signal transduction pathway

Binding of a hormone to itsreceptor initiates a


hasmultiple effects in mediating the body’s response to short-term stress


The response to a lipid-solublehormone is usually a change in

hormone-receptor complex

Whena steroid hormone, thyroid hormones, or the hormonal form of vitamin D binds toits receptor in the cytoplasm or nucleus, a ________ _______ is formed


Negative feedback regulates manyhormonal pathways involved in

positive feedback

reinforcesa stimulus to produce an even greater response


receivesinformation from the nervous system and initiates responses through theendocrine system

pituitary gland

Attachedto the hypothalamus and composed of the posteriorpituitary and anterior pituitary

posterior pituitary

stores and secretes hormones that are made in the hypothalamus

anterior pituitary

makes and releases hormones underregulation of the hypothalamus

(ADH) antidiuretic hormone

also known as vasopressin,regulates physiology and behavior


regulates milk secretion by the mammaryglands

1.Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

2.Luteinizing hormone (LH)

3.Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

4.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

5.Prolactin (PRL)6.Growth hormone (GH)

anterior pituitary hormones (5)

tropic hormone

regulates the function of endocrine cellsor glands


nontropic hormone

does not regulate the function ofendocrine cells or glands. The targets are nonendocrinetissues.

hormone-cascade pathway

A hormone can stimulate the releaseof a series of other hormones, the last of which activates a nonendocrine target cell

TRH----> TSH-----> thyroid hormone

If thyroid hormone level drops inthe blood, the hypothalamus secretes

thyroid hormone

stimulatesmetabolism and influences development and maturation


toolittle thyroid function, can produce symptoms such as

-Weight gain, lethargy, cold intolerance


excessiveproduction of thyroid hormone, can lead to

-High temperature, sweating, weight loss,irritability, and high blood pressure

Grave's disease

aform of hyperthyroidism caused by autoimmunity, is typified by protruding eyes

growth hormone

secretedby the anterior pituitary gland and has tropic and nontropic effects

-Itpromotes growth directly and has diverse metabolic effects

PTH and calcitonin

Twoantagonistic hormones regulate the homeostasis of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood of mammals


increasesthe level of blood Ca2+

-It releases Ca2+ frombone and stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+in the kidneys


decreasesthe level of blood Ca2+

-It stimulates Ca2+deposition in bones and secretion by kidneys

adrenal gland

consistsof two glands: the adrenalmedulla (inner portion) and adrenalcortex (outer portion)

adrenal medulla

secretesepinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine(noradrenaline)


secreted in response tostress-activated impulses from the nervous system

pancreatic islets

clusters of endocrine cells in the pancreas

alpha cells

produce glucagon in pancreas

beta cells

produces insulin in pancreas

1.Promoting the cellular uptake ofglucose

2.Slowing glycogen breakdown in theliver

3.Promoting fat storage, not breakdown

insulin reduces blood glucose levels by

1.Stimulating conversion of glycogento glucose in the liver

2.Stimulating breakdown of fat andprotein into glucose

glucagon increases blood glucose levels by

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

(insulin-dependent) autoimmunedisorder in which the immune systemdestroys pancreatic beta cells

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

(non-insulin-dependent) involvesinsulin deficiency or reduced response of target cells due to change in insulinreceptors