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46 Cards in this Set

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Biology

§thescientific study of life

properties associated with life: (6)

§Order


§Evolutionary adaptation


§Regulation


§Reproduction


§Response to environment


§Growth and development Energyprocessing

Evolution

§theprocess of change that has transformed life on Earth

Biological Organization

1. Biosphere


2. ecosystems


3. communities


4.. populations


5.organisms


6. organs & organ systems


7. tissues


8. cells


9. cell organelles


10. molecules

Emergentproperties

§resultfrom the arrangement and interaction of parts within a system

Reductionism

§isthe reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageableto studyex. studying the molecularstructure of DNA



systemsbiology

§analysisof the interactions among the parts of a biological system to explore emergent properties

correlation between structure andfunction

§Ex: a leaf is thin and flat, maximizingthe capture of light by chloroplasts


§Ex: the structure of a bird’s wing isadapted to flight

feedback

Cells are able to coordinatevarious chemical pathways through a mechanism called

feedbackregulation

§output,or product of a process, regulates that very process ex. negative feedback

DNA

structures called chromosomescontain genetic material in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid

eukaryoticcell

§membrane-enclosedorganelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus


prokaryoticcell

§simplerand usually smaller, and does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosedorganelles

Genes

encode information for building themolecules synthesized within the cell

DNA controls

§thedevelopment and maintenance of organisms

nucleotides

§Eachchain of DNA is made up of four kinds of these chemical building blocks nicknamed A, G, C, and T

Geneexpression

§theprocess of converting information from gene to cellular product

Genes indirectly control

protein production

DNA is transcribed into RNA and then

translated into a protein

The scientific explanation for boththe unity and diversity of organisms is

§theconcept that living organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors

Charles Darwin published

§Onthe Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859


-“descentwith modification”


-“Natural selection”

naturalselection

§Evolutionoccurs as the unequal reproductive success of individualsIn other words, the environment “selects”for the propagation of beneficial traits

science

§derived from Latin and means “to know”

Inquiry

§thesearch for information and explanations of natural phenomena

Qualitativedata

§often take the form of recordeddescriptions

Quantitativedata

§are generally expressed as numericalmeasurement, organized into tables and graphs

Inductivereasoning

§Repeatingspecific observations can lead to important generalizations (specifics to general)


§Ex: “Thesun always rises in the east”


§Ex: “All organisms are made of cells”

hypothesis

§atentative answer to a well-framed scientific question


§leadsto predictions that can be tested by making additional observations or byperforming experiments

Deductivereasoning

§usesgeneral premises to make specific predictions§Deductive testing takes the form of “If…then” logic

theory

§Broader in scope than a hypothesis




§General, and can lead to new testablehypotheses




§Supported by a large body of evidence incomparison to a hypothesis

matter

§Matteris anything that takes up space and has mass

element

§asubstance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions




§Ex: sodium, chlorine

Compound

is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio

essentialelements

About 20–25% of the 92 elements areessential to life

Traceelements

are those required by an organismin only minute quantities

atom

§thesmallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element

atomicnucleus

Neutrons and protons form the

daltons or amu

Neutron mass and proton mass

atomicnumber

the number of protons in itsnucleus

massnumber

§ thesum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus

All atoms of an element have thesame number of protons but may differ in number of

neutrons

Isotopes

§twoatoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons


§Ex: in carbon 14 (14C),there are 8 neutrons instead of 6 seen in carbon 12 (12C)

Radioactiveisotopes

§decayspontaneously, giving off particles and energy


-medicine


-imaging


-track metabolism atoms



Energy

§capacityto cause change

Potentialenergy

§theenergy that matter has because of its location or structure

§electronshell

§Anelectron’sstate of potential energy is called its energy level




§The lower the shell, the lower thepotential energy of the electrons; electrons absorb energy and move up a shellor release energy and move down