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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Animal and plant products as protein

A: Meat, Milk, Egg = VB, Zn, Ca; Complete protein

P: Nuts, Rice = VB, Zn, Ca; Incomplete protein

What element is found in protein that is not carbs or lipids?


Structure of amino acid

Linked together by peptide bonds to form polypeptides

How many essential amino acids are there

9 essential

What are the 4 levels of protein structure and bond

Primary - Polypeptide

Secondary - Hydrogen Bond

Tertiary - Disulphide, Hydrogen Bond

Quaternary - 2+ polypeptides

What is denaturation

Refers to alteration of protein's 3D structure: Heat, acid, agitation.

When protein loses 3D structure, it loses original function

Steps involved in protein digestion and absorption

1. Mouth - Chewing to break down protein

2. Stomach - Hydrochloric acid begin chemical digestion

3. SI - Protein digesting enzymes from pancreas, break down polypeptide to amino acids, di, and tripeptides

4. Transport proteins move products of protein digestion into mucosal cell. Some amino acids share transport system

5. Di and Tripeptides enter mucosal cell, after broken down into single amino acids

6. Amino pass from mucosal cell into blood and travel to liver, which regulates distribution of amino acids to rest of body

What is limiting Amino Acid

When we lack one of 9 essential Amino Acids to form protein, that protein cannot be synthesized

Functions of protein

Structure; Enzymes; Transport; Protection from disease; Movement; Fluid Balance; pH Balance

What is edema?

Role of protein to maintain fluid balance

How does protein maintain pH balance?

By acting as a buffer

Why does protein deficiency increase risk of infection?

Prolonged period of protein deficiency causes immune system to be weakened

What are complementary proteins

Combining proteins from different sources so that they collectively provide the required proportion of AA to meet body's needs.

Rice + Beans

What are Kwashiorkor and Marasmus

K: Protein deficiency leading to fluid accumulation in abdomen, fat accumulation in the liver

M: Protein and energy deficiency leading to depletion of fat stores and wasting of muscle

Relationship between high protein diet and health

1. More protein waste product in urine - dehydration; Progression of kidney failure

2. Increase Ca loss; Risk of Kidney stone

3. Proteins in foods may trigger intolerances or allergies

What is gluten intolerance? Dietary recommendations?

1. Experience digestive and health problems caused by eating gluten or wheat

- Instead of wheat flour, you can use potato, rice, soy or bean flour. There are also many gluten-free types of bread, pastas and other products

AMDR for protein?

10-35% of calories

What are the different types of vegetarian diets

1. Semivegetarian - No red meat, Yes all else

2. Pescetarian - No animal, Yes only to Fish

3. Lacto-ovo vegetarian - No animal, Yes egg/dairy

4. Lacto vegetarian - No animal, Yes dairy

5. Vegan - Nothing

Health benefits of vegetarian diet

1. Lower rate of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity

2. Reduced risk of infection from food

3. Better for environment

Risks of vegetarian diet

1. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies

2. Require VB12 supplement

3. Iron and Zinc poor from plants