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81 Cards in this Set

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What is a monosaccharide?

A carbohydrate made up of a single sugar

What is another name for monosaccharides?

Simple sugars

What is a disaccharide?

A carbohydrate made up of 2 monosaccharides (sugars)

In a disaccharide, there is 1 _____ bond

Glycosidic (acetal) bond

What is an oligosaccharide?

A short chain of simple sugars

What is another name for oligosaccharides?

Dextrins

What are polysaccharides?

A long chain of simple sugars

What is another name for polysaccharides?

Dextrans

An aldose is a sugar that contains an...

...aldehyde

A ketose is a sugar that contains a...

...ketone

What is the name of this monosaccharide?

What is the name of this monosaccharide?

Glucose

What category of monosaccharides does glucose fall under?

Aldoses

What category of monosaccharides does fructose fall under?

Ketoses

Most higher organisms use _____ carbohydrates

D

An aldehyde plus an alcohol creates a...

...hemiacetal

Why does a hemiacetal form a ring?

To stabilize itself

In glucose, if the -OH is facing downward, it is denoted as...

...alpha-glucose

In glucose, if the -OH is facing upward, it is denoted as...

...beta-glucose

Once the monosaccharide forms the ring, the carbon 1 -OH group is now...

...locked in its position

To go from the alpha anomer to the beta anomer, it must first go through the _____ to change

Linear form

When the alpha anomer transitions into the beta anomer, this process is called...

...mutarotation

Galactose's ring structure is very similar to glucose's, but it can be differentiated by...

...an -OH group that points upward on Carbon 4

When 50 molecules of an aldose and 50 molecules of an alcohol, a hemiacetal temporarily forms, which then forms into an acetal by reacting with the remaining alcohol. How many molecules of the aldose and acetal are there after the reaction?

25 molecules of aldose and 25 molecules of acetal

At any given temperature, the two anomers will be _______ with the linear form.

In equilibrium

How does one differentiate the alpha and beta glycosidic bond?

The beta glycosidic bond forms a "bow tie"

When glucose is reduced, it forms into what?

It forms into glucitol (sorbitol). That is, it loses the aldehyde.

When glucose is oxidized it can form two carboxylic acid compounds. What are they?

Gluconic acid and glucuronic acid

When glucose is oxidized at Carbon 1, it will form what derivative?

Gluconic acid

When glucose is oxidized at Carbon 6, it will form what derivative?

Glucuronic acid

What can glucuronic acid do that gluconic acid can't?

It can form a hemiacetal bond with itself, producing a ring structure.

Dexoy sugars are defined as...

...monosaccharides that have had one or more -OH groups replaced by a Hydrogen.

In a dexoy sugar, the "base" gets attached to what Carbon?

Carbon 1

In a dexoy sugar, the phosphoester bond forms where?

Carbon 5

Deoxyribose differs from ribose in that...

...it has a Hydrogen at Carbon 2 instead of a -OH group

Amino sugars contain what?

An amino group, usually attached at Carbon 2

Glucosamine has what attached at Carbon 2?

An amine (-NH2)

N-acetylgalactosamine has what attached at Carbon 2?

A acetylamine (-NH2COCH3)

What is the structural name for maltose?

Glucose-alpha (1,4)-glucose

Because there is an exposed hemiacetal on the second glucose in maltose, it is called what?

The reducing end

Why do di-, oligo-, and polysaccaharides have to be broken down into monosaccharides?

Because only the simple sugar is small enough to be moved into the cell. Therefore, multisugar carbohydrates must be broken down to be of use.

If multisugar carbohydrates are not immediately, where are they stored?

In the intestines

What is the structural name for sucrose?

Glucose-alpha (1,4)-fructose

What is the common name for sucrose?

Table sugar

Because fructose is a ketose, and therefore contains a ketone, can it be oxidized?

No.

Since fructose cannot be oxidized, it does not form a hemiacetal. Therefore, when sucrose is created it has 2 of what?

Non-reducing ends. Therefore, sucrose is a non-reducing disaccharide.

What is high fructose corn syrup?

A sucrose with a 40:60 split in glucose and fructose, respectively.

Because high fructose corn syrup does not trigger an insulin release, there is no up regulation of GLUT. Because of this, what can be said about blood sugar levels?

It is increased

What is the structural name for lactose?

Galactose-beta (1,4)-glucose

Does lactose have a reducing end?

Yes

If the enzyme lactase is not present, what happens to the ingested lactose?

It gets broken down by gut microbes

What is the structural name of cellbiose?

Glucose-beta (1,4)-glucose

How many monosaccharides make up stachyose?

4 (i.e. it is a tetrasaccharide)

What is the structural name of stachyose?

Galactose-alpha (1,6)-galactose-alpha (1,6)- glucose-alpha (1,5)-fructose

Can mammals digest stachyose?

No

Where can stachyose be found?

In beans, peas, bran, and whole grains

Some oligosaccharides can act as what?

Anti-biotics

What are two oligosaccharides that act as anti-biotics?

Streptomycin and bleomycin A2

What are glycans?

Polysaccharide polymers that are put together with acetal linkages. They can be composed of monosaccharides or monosaccharide derivatives.

What is the function of a starch?

It is a polysaccharide that stores carbohydrates

What are two common starches?

Amylose and amylopectin

What is amylose a polymer of?

Glucose

What is the basic structure of amylose?

(glucose-alpha (1,4)-glucose)n, where n is equal to the number of units.

Amylose is what kind of polymer?

A linear polymer

In an aqueous environment, what happens to amylose?

The linear chain curls into a helix.

How does amylopectin differ from amylose?

It is a branching polymer

What is the basic structure of amylopectin?

(glucose-alpha (1,4)-glucose)n with (glucose-alpha (1,6)-glucose)n branches

How many sugars can be present in a chain that branches from alpha (1,6)?

20 to 30 sugars

How many sugars can be present in the alpha (1,4) branch?

25 to 30 sugars

What bonds do salivary amylases hyrdolyze?

The alpha (1,4) bonds

What bonds do intestinal amylases/isomaltases hydrolyze?

The alpha (1.6) bonds

There are two factor that differ glycogen from amylopectin, What are they?

1. the alpha (1,6) branches are closer together. 2. there is a glycogenin protein at the center of the polysaccharide



To begin the initial elongation, glycogenin forms what kind of bond to the reducing end of glucose?

A beta glycosidic bond

On what amino acid does the bond form?

Tyrosine

Per 1 molecule of glycogen, how many glucoses are present?

60,000

Why is the high cost associated with manufacturing glycogen worth it?

Because a glycogen molecule can release energy rapidly. This is due to the simultaneous hydrolysis of the alpha (1,6) bonds, usually during the fight-or-flight response.

What purpose does cullose serve?

It serves as a structural polysaccharide

What is the structural formula of cellulose?

(glucose-beta (1,4)-glucose)n

What is the structural formula for chitin?

(N-acetylgalactosamine-beta (1,4)-N-acetylgalactoseamine)n

Why does chitin form hard sheets?

It Hydrogen bonds with itself in anti-parallel chains

Glycoproteins are...

Carbohydrates whose major components are proteins

Proteoglycans are...

Proteins whose major components are carbohydrates