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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biomolecule
a general term referring to organic compounds essential to life
biochemistry
a study of the compounds and processes associated with living organisms
carbohydrates
polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds upon hydrolysis
monosaccharide
a single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit
disaccharide
composed of two monosaccharide units
polysaccharide
very long chains of linked monosaccharide units
"saccharides"
refers to "sugars"
oligo
=several
polysaccharide
=many sugar chain
enantiomers
stereoisomers that are mirror images
chiral
an object that can be superimposed on its mirror image
chiral carbon
a carbon that has four different groups attached to it
Fischer projection
depict 3-dimensional shapes for chiral molecules, with the chiral carbon represented by the intersection of two lines
levorotatory or (-) enantiomer
the enantiomer that rotates polarized light to the left
dextrorotatory or (+) enantiomer
the enantiomer that rotates polarized light to the right
optically active
the property of rotating the plane of polarized light is called optical activity, and the molecules with this property are said to be _______
3
number of carbon atoms in Triose
4
number of carbon atoms in tetrose
5
number of carbon atoms in pentose
6
number of carbon atoms in hexose
Haworth Structure
this can be used to depict the three dimensional cyclic carbohydrate structures
alpha
can we ingest the alpha or beta version?
pyranose
six-membered ring containing an oxygen atom
furanose
five-membered ring containing an oxygen atom
anomeric carbon atom
the former carbonyl carbon atom is now chiral and called the
anomers
stereoisomers that differ in the 3-D arrangement of groups at the anomeric carbon of an acetal, ketal, hemiacetal, or hemiketal group
oxidized
a reducing sugar can be easily ______
monosaccharides
_______ are reducing sugars. (Benedict's reagent tests for reducing sugars)
ester
forms of a sugar with a phosphate group
glucose
the most nutritionally important monosaccharide
fructose
the sweetest monosaccharide
polysaccharides
condensation polymers containing thousands of units
cellulose
the most important structural polysaccharide