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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The Principle Elements of the Human Body

Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N),

Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Iron (Fe), Sulfur (S), Sodium (Na), Chlorine (Cl).


The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties and characteristics of it's element.


An atom that has a positive or negative electrical charge because it has an uneven amount of electrons and protons.


Two or more ions of the same or different kinds that share electrons.


The dense central core of an atom.


A positively charged subatomic particle that is contained inside of the nucleus.


A subatomic particle that has no positive or negative charge and is contained inside of the nucleus.


A negatively charged subatomic particle that floats around the outside of the nucleus in a cloud that is organized into electron shells.


Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers due to having different numbers of neutrons.


A molecule that is made up of more than one kind of atom or ion.

Free Radical

A molecule that has an unpaired electron in it's outermost shell.

Chemical Bond

The forces holding molecules or compounds together.

Valence Shell of Electrons

The outer most electron shell of an atom or ion.

Ionic Bond

The force of attraction that holds together ions with opposite charges that lose or gain electrons to each other.

Covalent Bond

The bond that is formed when two or more atoms share electrons in order to complete their valence shells.

Hydrogen Bond

Forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts nearby atoms with a partial negative charge.


An ion with a negative charge.


An ion with a positive charge.


An ionic compound that breaks apart into positive and negative ions in solution.


Two atoms sharing electrons equally


Two atoms sharing electrons unequally

Chemical Reaction

The breaking and creating of bonds between atoms.


All chemical reactions occurring within the body.


A chemical compound that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur.

Synthesis Reaction (Anabolism)

When two or more atoms, ions or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules.

Decomposition Reaction (Catabolism)

When larger molecules are split apart into smaller atoms, ions or molecules.

Exchange Reaction

A reaction that consists of both synthesis and decomposition reactions.

Reversible Reaction

A reaction in which the products can revert back to the original reactants.