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77 Cards in this Set

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the smallest units of matter that retains the properties and characteristics of elements
are extremely small
Subatomical particles-key elements
1)Protons-positively charged
2)Neutrons-uncharged, neutral
3)Electrons-negatively charged
All move about in large space surrounding the nucleus. Number of Protons equals number of Electrons
atom that has a positive or negative charge because it has unequal numbers of protons and electrons
if atom losses or gains a proton or electron, it becomes an Ion.
the process of giving up or gaining electrons.
Chemical Bonds
the forces that hold together atoms of a molecule or compound.
Ionic Bonds
force of attraction that holds together ions with opposite charges, Positively and negatively charged ions are attracted to one another, opposites attract!
possitively charged ion
Sodium has 1 valence shell (outermost shell of electrons) if sodium losses electron it's left with 8 electrons in the 2nd shell wich becomes the valence shell. It now has 10 electrons and 11 protons thus becoming a cation. Possitively charged.
a negatively charged ion.
if chlorine gains an electron from a neighboring atom, it will have a complete Octet in third electron shell. After gaining an electron, the total number of electrons exceeds the number of protons and chlorine atom becomes an anion.
an ionic compound that breaks apart into positive and negative ions in solution.
Covalent Bonds
form when two or more atoms share electrons rather than gaining or losing them.
atoms form a covalently bonded molecule by sharing one, two or three pairs of valence electrons. Compounds dissolve, remain intact but surrounded.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
two atoms share electrons equally- one atom does not attract shared electron more strongly than the other atom
bonds between two identical atoms are always nonpolar covalent bonds.
Polar Covalent Bond
sharing of electrons between two atoms is unequal- the nucleus of one atom attracts the shared electrons more strongly than nucleus of other atom.
polar covalent bond forms, the resulting molecule has partial negative charge near atom that attracts electrons more strongly.
Rift valley Fever
viral disease carried by mosquitos
infected female lays eggs, eggs can last for up to several years, passes infection onto eggs-eggs hatch, bite livestock, livestock passes it to humans
Hydrogen Bond
form when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partial negative charge of neighboring electronegative atoms, most often larger oxygen or nitrogen atoms
hydrogen bonds occur because hydrogen atoms in one water molecule are attracted to the partial negative charge of the oxygen atom in another water molecule
ability of one substance to disolve in another
charged/polar substances dissolve readily in water. Nonpolar do not (oils)
cation (positively charged ion) plus anion (negatively charged ion) in solution that conducts an electric current
Valence Shell
outer most shell in an atom that holds electrons
Chemical Reaction
occurs when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms
Foundation of all Life Processes. The number of atoms of each element is the same before and after a Chemical Reaction
all the chemical reactions occuring in the body
the capacity to do work
two principle forms of energy:
1)Potential Energy
2)Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
stored by matter due to its possition.
Kinetic Energy
associated with matter in motion
Chemical Energy
form of energy that is stored in the bonds of compounds and molecules
total amount of energy present at the beggining and end of a chemical reaction is the same.
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy can be neither created or destroyed
it may be converted from one form to another
Exergonic Reactions
release more energy than absorb
occur as nutrients, such as glucose, are broken down. Energy may be trapped in covalent bonds of ATP
Endergonic Reactions
absorbs more energy than released
reactions needed to build body structures such as muscle and bones
Activation Energy
collision energy needed to break the chemical bonds of the reactants. This initial energy "investment" is needed to start a reaction
a sufficiently forceful colision can disrupt the movement of valence electrons, causing an existing chemical bond to break or a new one to form
chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
the most important catalysts in the body are Enzymes
Synthesis Reaction-Anabolism
when two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form a new or larger molecule
reaction between two hydrogen molecules and one oxygen molecule to form two molecules of water
Decomposition Reaction-Catabolism
split up large molecules into smaller atoms, ions or molecules
series of reactions that break down glucose to pyruvic acid, with the net production of two molecules of ATP
Exchange Reaction
consist of both Synthesis and Decomposition reactions
Reversible Reaction
products can revert to the original reactant
In a Solution
a substance called a Solvent dissolves another substance called the Solute. Usually there is more solvent than solute in a solution
your sweat is a dilute solution of water (solvent) plus small amounts of salt (solutes)
Hydrophilic (water loving)

dissolves easily in water
sugar and salts
Hydrophobic (water fearing)
not very water soluble
animal fat and vegitable oils
the seperation of inorganic acids, bases and salts into ions in a solution
Buffer System
converts strong acid or bases into weak acids or bases
function mainly as source of chemical energy for generating ATP needed to drive metabolic reactions. Includes sugars, glycogen, starches and cellulose
3 major groups:
Nucleic Acids
huge organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
two varieties:
1)Deoxyribonucleic Acid-DNA
2)Ribonucleic Acid-Rna
DNA-Deoxyribonucleic Acid
first type of nucleic acid carbohydrate used for building structural units
molecule that carries inherited genetic information. Each gene is a segment of a DNA molecule
RNA-Ribonucleic Acid
second type of nucleic acid
relays instruction from the genes to guide each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids
nucleic acid that is a chain of repeating monomers
nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids
ATP-Adenosine triphosphate
the "energy currency" of living systems
consist of two types of building blocks, a single glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules
the most plentiful lipids in your body and in your diet
Monounsaturated Fats
contain triglycerides that mostly consist of monounsaturated fatty acids
olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil most nuts and avacados are rich in triglycerides with monousaturated fatty acids
Polyunsaturated Fats
contain triglycerides that mostly consist of polyunsaterated fatty acids
Corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oilsoybean oil, and fatty fish contain high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids
are amphipathetic molecules, having both polar and nonpolar regions
like triglycerides, phospholipids have a glycerol back bone and two fatty acid chains attached to the first two carbons. portion of the molecule (the head) is polar and can form hydrogen bods with water molecules. The two fatty acids (the tails) are nonpolar can interact only with other lipips.
Amphipathic (both sides feeling)
Molecules that have polar and nonpolar parts
line tail-to-tail in a double row to make up much of the membrane that suround each cell
have four rings of carbon atoms. body cells sythesize other steroids from cholesterol
differs from triglycerids, has large nonpolar region consisting of the four rings and a hydrocarbon tail
large molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. largely responsible for the structure of body tissue
form structural frame work, function as hormonesthat regulate various physiological processes, control growth and development, etc.
in living cells, most catalyst are protein molecules. Catalyze specific reactions. highly specific and very efficient
an enzyme speeds up a chemical reation without being altered or consumed
Some Enzymes consist of two parts
Apoenzyme (protein portion)
Cofactor (nonprotein portion)
the reactant molecules on wich the enzymes acts
part of the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction (active site) fits subtrates like a key fits a lock. it can also change it shape to fit around subtrats once it enters active site (induced fit)
An atom with a mass number of 18 that contains 10 neutrons would have an atomic number of _____
Matter exsists in three forms: ___,___, and ___.
solid, liquid, and gas
The building blocks of carbohydrates are the monomers ___ while the building blocks of proteins are the monomers ___.
monosaccharides, amino acids
The elements that compose most of the body's mass are carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Ionic bonds are created when atoms share electrons in the valence shell
Human blood has a normal pH between 7.35 and is con-
sidered slightly alkeline.
Wich of the following is not a function of proteins?
a) provide structural framework
b) bring about contraction
c) transport materials through- out the body
d) store energy
e) regulate many physiological processes
d) store energy
The monosaccharides glucose and fructose combine to form the disaccharide sucrose by a process known as:
a) dehydration synthesis
b) hydrolysis
c) decomposition
d) hydrogen bonding
e) ionization
a) dehydration synthesis
Wich of the following organic compounds are classified as lipids?
(1) polysaccharides, (2) triglycerides, (3) steroids (4) enzymes, (5) eicosaniods
(2) triglycerides, (3) steroids, and (5) eicosanoids
A compound dissociates in water and forms a cation other than H+ and an anion other than OH-. This substance most likely is a(n)
Wich of the following statements regarding ATP are True?
(1) ATP is the energy currency for the cell. (2) The energy supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP is constantly being used by cells. (3) Energy is required to produce ATP. (4) The production of ATP involves both aerobic and anaerobic phases. (5) The process of producing energy in the form of ATP is termed the law of conservation of energy.
(1), (2), (3) and (4)
During the course of analyzing an unknown chemical, a chemist determines that the chemical is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the proportion of 1 carbon to 2 hydrogens to 1 oxygen. The chemical is probably?
(a) an amino acid
(c)a triglyceride
(d)a protein
(e)a monosaccharide
(e) a monosaccharide
An abundant polar covalent molecule that serves as a solvent, has a high capacity, creates a high surface tension, and serves as a lubricant.
A substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions
A substance that dissociates into cations and anions, neither of wich is a hydrogen ion or a hydroxide ion
A proton acceptor
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration
A chemical compound that can convert strong acids and bases into weak ones
A catalyst for chemical reactions that is specific, efficient, and under cellular control
A single-stranded compound that contains a five-carbon sugar, and the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil
A compound that functions to temporarily store and then transfer energy liberated in exergonic reactions to cellular activities that require energy
A double-stranded compound that contains a five-carbon sugar, the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, and the body's genetic material
A charged atom
A charged atom with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell