Composition Of Copper Research Paper

The Composition of Copper
Copper is an element that many people have either felt or seen without realizing it. Pennies, for example, are made of copper. Certain pipes, contraceptives, and wires are other ways copper is used in our daily lives. It 's a great conductor of electricity, antibacterial, and corrosion resistant. However, this raises the question: what exactly are the properties of copper that give it its properties?

An element is a chemical substance in its simplest form. An atom is the basic unit of a chemical element. An atom consists of particles such as electrons, protons, and neutrons. The protons and neutrons of the atom make up its center, called the nucleus, and its electrons surround the nucleus from a certain distance.
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This implies many things. The atomic number of an element indicates how many electrons and protons there are. The number of electrons should always be the same of protons because their charges cancel and the overall charge of the atom is neutral, and so the number of protons and electrons of copper is 29. There are 29 electrons surrounding the nucleus, organized in orbitals. There are 29 protons in the nucleus, however the number of neutrons is dependent of the carbon isotope being described. There are different types of copper atoms containing different numbers of neutrons, however the number of protons and electrons will always stay the same. There are two stable isotopes of copper: 63Cu and 65Cu. There are 34 neutrons and 29 electrons and protons in isotope 63Cu, and the atomic mass is approximately 63u. There are 36 neutrons and 29 electrons and protons in isotope 65u, and the atomic mass is approximately 65u. The natural abundance of the 63Cu isotope is 69.17% and 30.83% of isotope 65Cu. Isotope 63Cu is more abundant in nature, and so the average atomic mass of copper is approximately …show more content…
This means that it fills 3 shells, and fills almost all the sub shells up to the d orbital in the 3rd shell, and fills 15 orbitals, since there are 29 electrons with 2 electrons in each orbital. However, there is a conflict with the arrangement of the electrons in copper. Notice how the electron in the 4s sub shell is not full, but the 3d sub shell is. This is so because electrons arrange themselves in a way to minimize their energy, and so it is lowered by transferring one of the two electrons from the 4s sub shell to enter the 3d sub shell lowers the energy. Copper is one of the exceptions to Aufbau 's principle, which states that the electrons must fill all lower orbitals

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