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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What are inorganic compounds?

Compounds that usually lack carbon and are structurally simple.

What are some common inorganic compound types?

Water and many salts, acids, and bases.

Do inorganic compounds have ionic or covalent bonds.

May have ionic or covalent.

Which common inorganic compounds contain carbon?

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Bicarbonate ion (HCO3−)

Carbonic acid (H2CO3).

What are the defining features of organic compounds?

Always contain carbon

Usually contain hydrogen

Always have covalent bonds

Most are large molecules

What is the most important property of water? Why is this important? (3 reasons)

Its polarity.

1. Makes water an excellent solvent for other ionic or polar substances

2. Gives water molecules cohesion

3. Allows water to resist temperature changes

What is the universal solvent?


Usually there is (less/more) solvent than solute in a solution.

Usually there is more solvent than solute in a solution.

What are common examples of hydrophilic solutes?

Sugar and salt.

What properties of solutes make them hydrophilic?

Solutes that are charged or contain polar covalent bonds.

What properties of solutes make them hydrophobic?

Mainly nonpolar covalent bonds.

What are common examples of hydrophobic compounds?

Animal fats and vegetable oils.

Table sugar (sucrose) easily dissolves in water but is not an electrolyte. Is it likely that all the covalent bonds between atoms in table sugar are nonpolar bonds? Why or why not?

No. Because sugar easily dissolves in a polar solvent (water), you can correctly predict that it has several polar covalent bonds.

What is hydrolysis?

Decomposition reaction that breaks down large molecules into smaller molecules by the addition of water molecules.

What are dehydration synthesis reactions?

When two smaller molecules join to form a larger molecule, a water molecule is one of the products formed.

Water is said to have a (high/low) heat capacity. What does this mean?

Water is said to have a high heat capacity.

Water can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with only a modest change in its own temperature.

Water's head of vaporization is (high/low). How do you know?

Water's head of vaporization is high. Water requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas.

What is a mixture?

A combination of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but not bound by chemical bonds.

What is a colloid?

Solute particles in a colloid are large enough to scatter light. Usually appear translucent or opaque.

What is a suspension?

Suspended material may mix with the liquid or suspending medium for some time, but eventually it will settle out.

What does it mean to dissociate?

When inorganic acids, bases, or salts dissolve in water, they separate into ions and become surrounded by water molecules.

What is an acid?

A substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (H+) and one or more anions.

An acid is also referred to as what?

As a proton donor.

What is a base?

Removes H+ from a solution, dissociates into one or more hydroxide ions (OH) and one or more cations.

A base is also referred to as what?

A proton acceptor.

What is a salt?

When dissolved in water, dissociates into cations and anions, neither of which is H+ or OH−.

The compound CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) dissociates into a calcium ion (Ca2+) and a carbonate ion (CO32−). Is it an acid, a base, or a salt? What about H2SO4, which dissociates into two H+ and one SO42−?

CaCO3 is a salt, and H2SO4 is an acid.

What is the pH scale?

A measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. The pH scale extends from 0 to 14, with a value of 7 expressing neutrality, values lower than 7 expressing increasing acidity, and values higher than 7 expressing increasing alkalinity.

What is a buffer system?

A weak acid and the salt of that acid (that functions as a weak base). Buffers prevent drastic changes in pH by converting strong acids and bases to weak acids and bases.

What is an important buffer system in the body?

The carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system.