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24 Cards in this Set

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Election of 1800:Unexpected Deadlock
Through a technicality Jefferson, the presidential candidate, and Burr, his vice presidential running mate, received the same number
of electoral votes for the presidency. Under the Constitution the tie could be broken only by the House of Representatives. The body was controlled by lame duck Federalist who proffered Burr over Jefferson. The agonizing deadlock was broken at last when a few Federalists, despairing of electing Burr and hoping for moderation from Jefferson, refrained from voting.
Jeffersons Precedence
unbroken until Woodrow Wilson’s presidency 112 years later, of
sending messages to Congress to be read by a clerk. Personal appearances, in the Federalist manner, suggested too strongly a monarchical speech from the throne. Jefferson was painfully conscious of his weak voice and unimpressive platform presence.
Spoils of office/patronage
Jefferson was forced to reverse many of the political principles he
had so vigorously championed. Patronage-hungry Jeffersonian watched the Federalist appointees grow old in office and grumbled that “few die, none resign.’’ Denied the power to dispense patronage, the Democratic- Republicans could not build a loyal political following. Everything was believed to come from merit and not from who you knew. It was a way to keep the most democratic government alive, according to Jefferson.
Excise Tax
is a type of tax charged on goods produced within the country. It is a tax on the production or sale of a good. Jefferson repealed this tax when in office. The first and almost only tax that the federalists imposed because he believed it hurt his farmer following. It cost the country millions in state taxes.
Judiciary Act 1801
was one of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist
Congress. It created sixteen new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. Though a long-overdue reform, aroused bitter resentment. “Packing’’ these lifetime posts with anti-Jeffersonian partisans was, in Republican eyes, a brazen attempt by the ousted party to entrench itself in one of the three powerful branches of government. The newly elected Republican Congress bestirred itself to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801 in the year after its passage. Jeffersonians thus swept sixteen benches from under the recently seated
“midnight judges.’’
"Midnight Judges"
President Adams remained at his desk until nine o’clock in the
evening of his last day in office, supposedly signing the commissions of the Federalist “midnight judges.’’ These were the judges that the Judiciary Act of 1801 created.
Chief Justice John Marshall
(1755-1835) appointed by John Adams to the Supreme Court. was a cousin of Thomas Jefferson. He dominated the Supreme Court He shaped the American legal tradition more profoundly than any other single figure. served at Valley Forge during the Revolution. The experience made him a lifelong Federalist, committed above all else to strengthening the power of the federal government .Even under an anti Federalist government he imposed his Federalist believes for 34 years on. He tried the Marbury V. Madison case and was a parallel to Hamilton. he established that the courts are entitled to exercise judicial review, the power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution. credited with cementing the position of the judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government. Shaping the balance of power between the federal government and the states during the early years of the republic. confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law and supported an expansive reading of the enumerated powers.
Marbury v. Madison
When Marbury learned that his commission was being shelved by the new secretary of state, James Madison, he sued for its delivery. The Jeffersonian government dismissed the case but not until Marshall joined the party. Marshall said that the part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional. The act had attempted to assign to the Supreme Court powers that the Constitution had not foreseen. Marshall greatly magnified the authority of the Court—and slapped at the Jeffersonians. Until the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803), controversy had clouded the question of who had the final authority to determine the meaning of the Constitution .cleverly promoted the contrary principle of “judicial review’’—the idea that the Supreme
Court alone had the last word on the question of constitutionality. This solidified the power of the Supreme Court.
"Judicial Review"
Established by Marbury v. Madison. the idea that the Supreme
Court alone had the last word on the question of
Samuel Chase/ impeachment
(1741-1811) in order to get revenge over the Marbury v. Madison case, Jeffersonians wanted to impeach Samuel Chase in retaliation. Early in 1804 impeachment charges. against Chase were voted by the House of Representatives, which then passed the question of guilt or innocence on to the Senate. The indictment by the House was based on “high crimes, and misdemeanors,’’ as specified in the Constitution the evidence was plain that the intemperate judge had not been guilty of “high crimes,’’ but only of unrestrained partisanship and a big mouth. The Senate failed to muster enough votes to convict and remove Chase. Jefferson’s ill advised attempt at “judge breaking’’ was a reassuring victory for the independence of the judiciary and for the separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government.
Pasha of Tripoli
The pasha of Tripoli, dissatisfied with his share of
protection money, informally declared war on the
United States by cutting down the flagstaff of the
American consulate. This was for the protection of American sailors in foreign waters. Jefferson was faced with a dilemma. He could either fight, although he was a pacifist, or take the ridiculue which would undermine his authority and the country. He reluctantly
rose to the challenge by dispatching the
infant navy to the “shores of Tripoli,’After four years
of intermittent fighting, marked by spine-tingling
exploits, Jefferson succeeded in extorting a treaty of
peace from Tripoli in 1805. It was secured at the bargain
price of only $60,000—a sum representing ransom
payments for captured American. It was here where gun boats were used and how the navy was expanded to some extend.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
(1743-1803) A self educated ex-slave and military genius. L'Ouverture was finally betrayed by the Frenchm who imprisoned him. He did much to set up the sale of Louisiana. He fought for the freedom of Santo Domingo which if profitable to the French would require Louisiana to supply food. This annoyed Napaloen to no end ultimately making him give up on a new empire dream.
Ceding Louisiana to the US
on April 30, 1803, ceding Louisiana to the United States for about $15 million the French lost their stake on the new world .
Louisiana Purchase:Constitutional Problem
No where in the Constitution was the president authorized to negotiate treaties incorporating a huge new expanse into the union—an expanse containing tens of thousands of Indian, white, and black inhabitants? There was no such clause. Jefferson made Congress pass a clause that allowed him to this.
Lewis and Clark
In the spring of 1804, Jefferson sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and a young army officer named William Clark to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase. Aided by the Shoshoni woman Sacajawea, Lewis and Clark ascended the “Great Muddy’’ (Missouri River) from St. Louis, struggled through the Rockies, and descended the Columbia River to the Pacific coast. Lewis and Clark’s two-and-one-half-year expedition yielded a rich harvest of scientific observations, maps, knowledge of the Indians in the region, and hair-raising wilderness adventure stories. On the Great Plains, they marveled at the “immense herds of buffalo, elk, deer, and antelope feeding in one common and boundless pasture.” Lewis was lucky to come back alive. The explorers also demonstrated the viability of an overland trail to the Pacific.
The "Duel"
Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton deplored the practice of dueling, by that date illegal in several states, but felt his honor was at stake. He met Burr’s challenge at the appointed hour but refused to fire. Burr killed Hamilton with one shot. Burr’s pistol blew the brightest brain out of the Federalist party and destroyed its one remaining hope of effective leadership.
Burr's Scheme
Burr turned his disunionist plotting to the trans-Mississippi West. There he struck up an allegiance with General James Wilkinson. Burr's schemes are still shrouded in mystery, but he and Wilkinson apparently planned to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of
Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida. when the general learned that Jefferson had gotten wind of the plot, he betrayed Burr and fled to New Orleans. Burr was arrested and tried for treason. Marshall insisted that to the Constitution, insisted that a guilty verdict required proof of overt acts of treason, not merely treasonous intentions. Burr was acquitted and fled to Europe.
Orders of Council/ French Reaction
Since they could not attack each other directly, the British and French resorted to other types of fighting. The London government, beginning in 1806, issued a series of Orders in Council. These edicts closed the European ports under French control to foreign shipping, including American, unless the vessels first stopped at a British port. Napoleon struck back, ordering the seizure of all merchant ships, including American, that entered British ports. There was no way to trade with either nation without facing the other’s guns.
Embargo Act
Congress hastily passed the Embargo Act late in 1807. This rigorous law forbade the export of all goods from the United States, whether in American or in foreign ships. More than just a compromise between submission and shooting, the embargo embodied Jefferson’s idea of “peaceful coercion.” the embargo would vindicate the rights of neutral nations and point to a new way of conducting foreign affairs. If it failed, Jefferson feared the Republic would perish, subjugated to the European powers or sucked into their ferocious war. The American economy staggered under the effect of the embargo long before Britain or France began to bend. New England shipping was badly hurted as well as the Southern plantations that had lost their market. Illicit trade boomed in the Canadian border.
Non-Intercourse Act
On March 1, 1809 the embargo was repealed and its place the non-intercourse Act was placed. This measure formally reopened
trade with all the nations of the world, except the two
most important, Britain and France. Though thus
watered down, economic coercion continued to be
the policy of the Jeffersonians from 1809 to 1812,
when the nation finally plunged into war.
Macon's Bill No. 2
which became law on May 1, 1810, was intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. This bill was a revision of the original bill by Representative Nathaniel Macon, known as Macon's Bill Number 1. The law lifted all embargoes with Britain or France. If either one of the two countries stopped attacks upon American shipping, the United States would cease trade with the other, unless that country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well. This was after the Non-intercourse Act expired in 1810 and Congress completely dismantled it. Under Madison, it was a shameful capitulation. It admitted that the USA could not survive without one of the belligerents as a commercial ally.
"War hawks"
After Madison was elected president, the reelections at Congress replaced alot of the "submission men" and replaced them with young hotheads from the South and West. Dubbed “war hawks” by their Federalist opponents,The war hawks were weary of
hearing how their fathers had “whipped” the British
single-handedly, and they detested the manhandling
of American sailors and the British Orders in Council
that dammed the flow of American trade. Western war hawks also yearned to wipe out a
renewed Indian threat to the pioneer settlers who
were streaming into the trans-Allegheny wilderness
William Henry Harrison/Tippecanoe
(1773-1841) In the fall of 1811, William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory, gathered an army and advanced on Tecumseh’s headquarters at the junction of the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers
in present-day Indiana. the Prophet attacked Harrison’s army—foolishly, The Battle of Tippecanoe made Harrison a national hero. It also discredited the Prophet and drove Tecumseh into an alliance with the British. to rising tensions with the tribes and threats of war, an American force of militia and regulars set out to launch a preemptive strike on the headquarters of the confederacy.
Divisions over War
Madison asked Congress to declare war on June 1, 1812.The close tally revealed deep divisions over the wisdom of fighting. The split was both sectional and partisan. Support for war came from the South and West, but also from Republicans in populous middle states such as Pennsylvania and Virginia. Federalists in both North and South damned the conflict, but their stronghold was New England, which greeted the declaration of war with muffled bells, flags at half-mast, and public fasting. New England was against the war because Pro-British Federalists in the Northeast sympathized with Britain and resented the Republicans’ sympathy with Napoleon. The Federalists also opposed the acquisition of Canada, which would merely add more agrarian states from the wild Northwest.(increase Jefferson's voting strength). In a sense America had to fight two enemies simultaneously: Old England and New England. New England aided the British with food and gold while stopping their state militia from joining the war.