Role Of The Bureaucracy In The Policy Making Process

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The Bureaucracy. Another institution involved in the U.S. policymaking process worth noting would be the bureaucracy. More specifically, the bureaucrats would be the employees within the various governmental agencies. Additionally, the roles played by the bureaucracy in the policymaking process are more likely to be see in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation stages. The advantage for bureaucracy is the specific expertise that it brings forth regarding a specific issue, department, topic, etc. Accordingly, with that expertise, comes considerable power (Moats, 2016, The Bureaucracy: The "Fourth" Branch of Government).
The bureaucracy is responsible for implementing all policies passed by Congress. Further, due to the ambiguity
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Finally, the Courts are the final institution also involved in the policymaking process, along with the other aforementioned institutions. The powers granted to the Courts stem directly from the Constitution and, as such, are very limited in their role concerning policymaking. Mainly, one will see the Courts involved in the evaluation stage, and at that point the Court’s purpose is to answer constitutional questions. Further, the authority of the Courts to review the actions of the executive and legislative branches is termed judicial review. Notwithstanding, the Courts are very much reserved in terms of dealing with Congress. More particularly, the landmark case Marbury v. Madison (U.S. Supreme Court, 1803), essentially formed the basis for judicial review under Article III of the Constitution. In Marbury, William Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to require the newly appointed Secretary of State, James Madison, to deliver his commission as a justice of the peace position in the District of Colombia. The constitutional issue before the Court was whether Congress could expand the original juridiction of the Supreme Court. Ultimately, in an unaminous (4-0) decision, the Court decided that although Marbury had a right to his commission, the Court did not have the authority to compel Madison to deliver the same. In support of its decision, the Supreme Court replied that Acts of Congress which conflict with the Consitution are not in fact law and, as …show more content…
First, Article III of the Constitution leaves it to Congress to decide and, accordingly, adjust the size of the Court. Further, Congress has the power to commence impeachment proceedings of any Supreme Court justice; however, the Senate then holds a trial and renders a verdict on the justice’s guilt. Additionally, although the President is responsible for nominating new Supreme Court Justices, it is ultimately Congress’ decision to confirm the nomination, i.e. accepting the appointment. Lastly, should the Supreme Court interpret the Constitution in such a way that does not sit favorably with the members of Congress, Congress can at all times draft new laws, as well as amend the Constitution, effectively circumventing the Court’s previous decision (The Power of the Federal Courts). As such, it is evident that the Courts influence in policymaking is considerably limited to that of Congress, the President, and the Bureaucracy. Therefore, the Supreme Court’s principal purpose in the policymaking process is simply to exercise judicial review, and evaluate the constitutional questions arising out of the cases brought before the

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