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52 Cards in this Set

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periodization
pe·ri·od·i·za·tion
   [peer-ee-uh-duh-zey-shuhn] Show IPA

noun
an act or instance of dividing a subject into historical eras for purposes of analysis and study.
paleolithic
The cultural period of the Stone Age that began about 2.5 to 2 million years ago, marked by the earliest use of tools made of chipped stone. The Paleolithic Period ended at different times in different parts of the world, generally around 10,000 years ago in Europe and the Middle East. Also called Old Stone Age .
neolithic
the cultural period that lasted in SW Asia from about 9000 to 6000 bc and in Europe from about 4000 to 2400 bc and was characterized by primitive crop growing and stock rearing and the use of polished stone and flint tools and weapons. refered to as the new stone age.
metallurgy
the technique or science of working or heating metals so as to give them certain desired shapes or properties.
textile
any cloth or goods produced by weaving, knitting, or felting
neolithic revolution
the origin and consequences the introduction of agriculture, domestication of animals, and a more sedentary life during the later part of the Stone Age
epic of gilgamesh
The Epic of Gilgamesh is a Mesopotamian epic poem and is one of the earliest known works of literature. It is believed to have come from a set of Sumerian legends and poems concerning the protagonist, Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk. A king named Ashurbanipal from Assyria preserved the legend on 12 clay tablets, which are today the most complete existing version. There were two original titles of
this epic: "He who Saw the Deep" and "Surpassing All Other Kings".In the story, Gilgamesh and a close male companion undertake dangerous quests.
irrigation
the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.
hammurabi's code
The Code of Hammurabi is the first-known code of laws written down in history
-Hammurabi code is the first law of the land in ancient Babylon.It is written in Rosetta stone. The purpose of writing the law in the stone in order to preserved and pass to the next generation of Babylonians.
economic specialization
Division of labour is the specialization of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and like roles. Historically an increasingly complex division of labour is closely associated with the growth of total output and trade, the rise of capitalism, and of the complexity of industrialisation processes. Division of labour was also a method used by the Sumerians to categorise different jobs, and divide them to skilled members of a society.
startified patriarchal society
A patriarchy is a social system in which the role of the father is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children and property. "Stratified" simply means that it was developed hierarchically.
cuneiform
a form of writing composed of slim triangular or wedge-shaped elements, as the characters used in writing by the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and others.
moses
the hebrew prophet who led the Israelites out of Egypt and delivered the Law during their years of wandering in the wilderness.
polytheism
the doctrine of or belief in more than one god or in many gods.
semitic
a subfamily of Afroasiatic languages that includes Akkadian, Arabic, Aramaic, Ethiopic, hebrew, and Phoenician.
-a branch or subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages that includes Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Amharic, and such ancient languages as Akkadian and Phoenician
city state
a sovereign state consisting of an autonomous city with its dependencies.
indo-europeans
a large, widespread family of languages, the surviving branches of which include Italic, Slavic, Baltic, Hellenic, Celtic, Germanic, and Indo-Iranian, spoken by about half the world's population: English, Spanish, German, Latin, Greek, Russian, Albanian, Lithuanian, Armenian, Persian, Hindi, and Hittite are all Indo-European languages.
pastoral nomads
Nomadic people, commonly known as itinerants in modern-day contexts, are communities of people who move from one place to another, rather than settling permanently in one location. There are an estimated 30-40 million nomads in the world. ...

(pastoral nomads) An intermediate form of ecological adaptation dependent on domesticated animal herds that feed on natural environment; typically more populous than shifting cultivation groups.

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hebrews, jews, israelites
Israel refers to a nation, whose culture is Jewish and its language Hebrew.

jews are members of the Jewish people, an ethnic group originating in the Israelites of the ancient Middle East. The ethnicity is strongly related to the religion of Judaism, and converts to Judaism are included among the Jewish people. Jew, an adherent of the religion of Judaism.
abraham
the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation: considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
monotheism
the doctrine or belief that there is only one God.
phoenicians
a native or inhabitant of Phoenicia.


an ancient maritime country extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Lebanon Mountains, now occupied by the coastal regions of Lebanon and parts of Syria and Israel: consisted of a group of city-states, at their height between about 1200 and 1000 bc , that were leading traders of the ancient world
savannah
open grasslands, usually with scattered bushes or trees, characteristic of much of tropical Africa
pharaoh
a title of an ancient Egyptian king
mercenary
a professional soldier hired to serve in a foreign army
or
any person who works solely for pay
scribe
a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of printing.
hieroglyphics
designating or pertaining to a pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented.
rosetta stone
a stone slab, found in 1799 near Rosetta, bearing parallel inscriptions in Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and demotic characters, making possible the decipherment of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics.
aryan
a member or descendant of the prehistoric people who spoke Indo-European.
harappans
The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan culture) has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BCE. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.[4] The civilization, with a writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system, was rediscovered in the 1920s after excavations at Mohenjo-daro (which means "mound of the dead") in Sindh near Sukkur, and Harappa, in west Punjab south of Lahore
vedas
Sometimes, Vedas. the entire body of Hindu sacred writings, chief among which are four books, the Rig-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda, and the Yajur-Veda
upanishads
any of a class of speculative prose treatises composed between the 8th and 6th centuries b.c. and first written a.d. c1300: they represent a philosophical development beyond the Vedas, having as their principal message the unity of Brahman and Atman.
and
any of a class of speculative prose treatises composed between the 8th and 6th centuries b.c. and first written a.d. c1300: they represent a philosophical development beyond the Vedas, having as their principal message the unity of Brahman and Atman.
Brahman
a member of the highest, or priestly, class among the Hindus. Compare Kshatriya, Shudra, Vaisya
and
Brahmin a member of the highest or priestly caste in the Hindu caste system
karma
seen as bringing upon oneself inevitable results, good or bad, either in this life or in a reincarnation: in Hinduism one of the means of reaching Brahman.
dharma
conformity to religious law, custom, duty, or one's own quality or character.
ascetic
a person who dedicates his or her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals and practices extreme self-denial or self-mortification for religious reasons.
-a monk
"china's sorrow"
Hwang Ho, or the Yellow River, is popularly known as China’s Sorrow because of its devastating floods. This remarkable stream is one of the largest rivers in the world and is the second largest in China, being second only to the Yangtze.
hereditary state
The passing down of power through blood lines. Ancient Chinese dynasties were ruled using the system of hereditary state. Most of the power was granted to the males due to the patriarchal nature of the Chinese culture.
dynasty
shang, zhou, qin, han
a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group
shang:


shang dynasty




noun



the imperial dynasty ruling China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries BC
zhou:the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
qin:the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
han: imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
royal court
1.

the family and retinue of a sovereign or prince


2.

the sovereign and his advisers who are the governing power of a state
artisans
a person skilled in an applied art; a craftsperson.

2.
a person or company that makes a high-quality, distinctive product in small quantities, usually by hand and using traditional methods
ancestor veneration
the practice of living family members who try to provide a deceased family member with continuous happiness and well-being in the afterlife. It is a way of continuing to show respect toward them, and it reinforces the unity of family and lineage. Showing respect to ancestors is an ideology deeply rooted in Chinese society.
oracle bones
a group of inscribed animal bones and shells discovered in China and used originally in divination by the ancient Chinese, especially during the Shang dynasty.
steppe nomads
Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the Eurasian Steppe. This generic title encompasses the ethnic groups inhabiting the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia, and what is now Russia. They domesticated the horse, and their economy and culture emphasizes horse breeding, horse riding, and a pastoral economy in general. They developed the chariot, cavalry, and horse archery, introducing innovations such as the bridle, bit, and stirrup, and often appear in history as invaders of Europe, Anatolia, and China. Horse people is a generalized and somewhat obsolete term for such nomads, which might also include hunter-gatherer peoples of the North American prairies and South American pampas.
maize
a pale yellow resembling the color of corn.
bering land bridge
The Bering land bridge was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) wide (north to south) at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the Pleistocene ice ages. The term Beringia was first coined by the Swedish botanist Eric Hultén in 1937.[1] Like most of Siberia and all of Manchuria, Beringia was not glaciated because snowfall was extremely light.[2] The grassland steppe, including the land bridge, that stretched for several hundred miles into the continents on either side has been called Beringia. It is believed that a small human population of at most a few thousand survived the Last Glacial Maximum in Beringia, isolated from its ancestor populations in Asia for at least 5,000 years, before expanding to populate the Americas sometime after 16,500 years ago, during the Late Glacial Maximum as the American glaciers blocking the way southward melted
terrace farming
Terrace farming is a type of farming that was developed first by the Inca people. This method of farming uses "steps", called andenes, that are built into the side of a mountain or hill. On each anden, various crops are planted, and when it rains, instead of washing away all of the nutrients in the soil, the nutrients are carried down to the next level. Additionally, these "steps" prevent a free flowing avalanche of water that would take plants with it and destroy the all of the crops on the hillside. This system also allowed them to build aqueducts, which carried water to each andenes. The Incas built their aqueduct system so well that it is still used today. Terrace farming is often used by the Chinese in their rice farms.
andean highlands
The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world. It is a continual range of highlands along the western coast of South America
Austronesian peoples
The Austronesian-speaking peoples[4] are various populations in Southeast Asia and Oceania that speak languages of the Austronesian family. They include Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the non-Papuan people of Melanesia. They are also found in Singapore, the Pattani region of Thailand, and the Cham areas of Vietnam (remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), Cambodia, and Hainan, China. The territories populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are known collectively as Austronesia.
decentralized administration
Administrative decentralization seeks to redistribute authority, responsibility and financial resources for providing public services among different levels of governance. It is the transfer of responsibility for the planning, financing and management of public functions from the central government or regional governments and its agencies to local governments, semi-autonomous public authorities or corporations, or area-wide, regional or functional authorities. The three major forms of administrative decentralization—deconcentration, delegation, and devolution—each have different characteristics.
river valley civilization
Yellow River (China), the Indus River (India), the Nile River (Egypt), and between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) made lasting contributions to civilizations.