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427 Cards in this Set

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Neolithic Age
final Stone age
-invention of agriculture, the creation of cities, and other foreshadowings of civilization, which ended the Stone age altogether throughout much of the world
Neolithic Revolution
allowed people to settle more permanently in one area
-agriculture required more regular work, at least of men, than hunting did.
-agriculture supported larger populations, and with better food supplies and a more settled existence, agricultural people could afford to build houses and villages
Bronze Age
4000 B.C.E.- 3000 B.C.E
-by about 3000 B.C.E., metalworking had become so commonplace in the Middle East that the use of stone tools dissipated, and long stone ages were over at last
slash and burn agriculture
people would burn off trees in an area, farm intensively for a few years until the soil was depleted, them move on
bands
herding people moved in tribal bands, with strong kinship ties
Catal Huyuk
neolithic village that has been elaborately studied bu archeologists.
-found in 7000 B.C.E.and was unusually large, covering about 32 acres
-houses were made of mud bricks set in timber frameworks, crowded together, with few windows
civilization
-some scholars prefer to define civilization only as societies with enough economic surplus to form divisions of labor and a social hierarchy involving significant inequalities
-involves the emergence of formal political oganizations, or states, as opposed to dependence on family or tribal ties
-most civilizations produce political units capable of ruling large regions, and some characteristically produce huge kingdoms or empires
cuneiform
writing based on wedgelike characters developed in the Middle East around 3500 B.C.E.
nomads
people who move from place to place
was considered as "barbarians" to many civilizations
Mesopotamia
-founded in the valley of Tigris and Euphrates
-by 4000 B.C.E., the farmers of Mesopotamia were familiar with bronze and copper and had already invented the wheel for transportation
-had a well-established pottery industry and interesting artistic forms
Sumerians
-by about 3500 B.C.E., sumerians invaded Mesopotamia
-developed cuneiform
-sumerian art developed steadily, as statues and painted frescoes were used to adorn the temples of gods
-developed ziggurats and Hammurabi's Code, and organized city- states (these explained in other cards)
ziggurats
massive towers that formed the first monumental architecture in this civilization
city-states
-sumerian political structures stressed tightly organized city-states, ruled by a king who claimed divine authority
-sumerian state had carefully defined boundaries, unlike the less formal territories of precivilized villages in the region
Babylonians
Sumerians --> Akkadians --> Babylonians
-extended their own empire and thus helped bring civilization to other parts of Middle East
Hammurabi
-established rules of procedure for courts of law and regulated property rights and duties of family members, setting harsh punishments for crimes
pharaoh
king who possessed immense power in the Egyptian civilization
pyramids
-Egyptian pharaohs built splendid tombs for themselves
-from 2700 B.C.E. onward
Kush
an African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile (1000 B.C.E.)
-conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
Indus River
a prosperous urban civilization emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E., supporting several citires, including Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro*, whose houses even had running water
-Indus River peoples had trading contacts with Mesopotamia, but they developed their own distinctive alphabet and artistic forms
Huanghe (Yellow River)
civilization along the Yellow River in China developed in considerable isolation, although some overland trading contact with India and Middle East did develop
-Huanghe civilization was the subject of much later Chinese legend, which praised the godlike kings of early civilization, starting with the mythic ancestor of the Chinese, P'an Ku.
ideographic
writing progressed from knotted ropes to scratches of lines on bone
Shang
by about 1500 B.C.E, a line of kings called the Shang ruled over the Huanghe valley, and these rulers did construct some impressive tombs and palaces
Phoenicians
devised a greatly simplified alphabet with 22 letters around 1300 B.C.E; this alphabet, in turn, became the predecessor of Greek and Latin alphabets
-improved the Egyptian numbering system
-set up colony cities in north Africa and on the coast of Europe
Dao
harmony; avoid excess and appreciating the balance of opposites
Confucius
wrote an elaborate statement on political ethics, providing the core of China's distinctive philosophical heritage
Qin
ruler was Shi Huangdi
Shi Huangdi
was a brutal ruler, but effective given the circumstances of internal disorder
-worked vigorously to undo the problem that lay in the regional power of the aristocrats
-ordered nobles to leave their regions and appear at his court, assuming control of their feudal estates
-under Shi Huangdi's rules, powerful armies crushed regional resistance and China was organized into large provinces ruled by bureaucrats appointed by him
Han
-202 B.C.E
-lasted over 400 years to 220 C.E., rounded out China's basic political and intellectual structures
-Han rulers retained the centralized administration of the Win but sought to reduce the brutal repression of that period
Alexander the Great
invaded India, and when he did not establish a durable empire, he did allow important Indian contacts with Hellenistic culture
The Hercules is a:
C-130
Monsoon
-crucial for farming
-rains that vary from year to year, sometimes bringing too little rain or coming too late and causing famine producing drought, or sometimes bringing catastrophic floods
-in a year with favorable monsoons, Indian farmers were able to plant and harvest two crops an could thus support a seizable population
Sanskrit
the first literary language of the new Aryan culture
Vedas
sacred books that were written in Sanskrit
-originally developed by the Aryans
Aryan
during the Vedic and Epic ages of India, migrants- hunting and herding people originally from central Asia- gradually came to terms with agriculture but had their own impact on the culture and social structure of their new home
-Indian agriculture extended from the Indus River valley to the more fertile Ganges valley, as the Aryans used iron tools to clear away the dense vegetation
Varnas
Aryan social classes that partly enforced divisions familiar in agricultural societies
-a warrior or governing class, the Kshatriyas, and the priestly class, or Brahmans, stood at the top of the social pyramid, followed by Vaisyas, the traders and farmers, and Sudras, or common laborers
untouchables
a fifth group of the Aryan (Indian) social classes
-confined to a few jobs, such as transporting the bodies of the dead or hauling refuse
-widely believed that touching these people would defile anyone from a superior class
Indra
the god of thunder and strength (Aryan; India)
Chandragupta Maurya
in 322 B.C.E, a young soldier named Chandragupta Maurya seized power along the Ganges River in China.
0became the frist of the Mauryan dynasty of INdian rulers, who in turn were the first rulers to unify much of the entire subcontinent
-maintained large armies, with thousands of chariots and elephant-borne troops
Ashoka
Chandragupta's grandson who was an even greater figure in history
-first serving as a governor of two provinces, Ashoka enjoyed a lavish lifestyle, with frequent horseback riding and feasting
-worked to improve trade and communication, sponsoring an extensive road network dotted with wells and rest stops for travelers
Kushans
new invaders who pushed into central India from the northwest
Gupta
a new line of kings who established a large empire in India, beginning in 320 C.E.
-Gupta rulers often preferred to negotiate with local princes and intermarry with their families, which expanded influence without constant fighting
-two centuries of Gupta rule brought India political stability, although the Guptas did not administer as large a territory as the Mauryan kings did
-was overturned in 535 C.E. by the Huns
Kautilya
Chandragupta's chief minister who wrote an important treatise on politics but it was devoted to telling rulers what methods would work to maintain power-- somewhat like the Legalists in China
gurus
mystics in India who gathered disciples around them, and the brahman priests agreed on certain doctrines, as Hinduism became an increasingly formal religion by the first centuries of the common era
Vishnu & Shiva
examples of gods who the divine aspects of Brahma in India were manifested in
-Vishnu: the preserver
-Shiva: the destroyer, who could be worshiped or placated (calmed) as expressions of the holy essence
reincarnation
-principle that Hindus stressed
-souls do not die when bodies do but pass into other beings, either human or animal
-where the souls goes, whether it rises to a higher- caste person or falls perhaps to an animal, depends on how good a life the person has led
-ultimately, after many good lives, the soul reaches full union with the soul of brahma, and world suffering ceases
nirvana
Buddha did not reject the possibility of rewards after life, but he saw salvation as arising from the destruction of the self, whose annihilation opens the door to realm where suffering and decay are no more, literally a world beyond existence itself: nirvana
-individuals could regulate their lives and aspirations toward this goal, without elaborate ceremonies
stupas
-Ashoka sponsored many spherical shrines to Buddha, called stupas
Cyrus the Great
by 550 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great established a massive Persian Empire across the northern Middle East and into northwestern India
Zoroastrianism
-developed by Persians
-Animist religion that saw material existence as battle between forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; righteous lived on after death in "House of Song"; chief religion of Persian Empire
Pericles
-during the 5th century B.C.E., that the most famous Greek political figure, Pericles, dominated Athenian politics
-was an aristocrat, but he was part of a democratic political structure in which each citizen could participate in city-state assemblies to select officials and pass laws
-ruled through wise influence and negotiation
-helped restrain some of the more aggressive view of the Athenian democrats, who urged even further expansion of the empire to garner more wealth and build the economy
Peloponnesian Wars
-431-404 B.C.E.
-war between Athens and Sparta for control of Greece
Philip II of Macedon
won the crucial battle of the Peloponnesian War in 338 B.C.E., and then his son Alexander extended the Macedonian Empire through the Middle East, across Persia to the border of India, and southward through Egypt
Hellenistic period
Greek art and culture merged with other Middle Eastern forms
-name derived because of the influence of the Hellenes, ad the Greeks were known
-trade flourished and important scientific centers were established in such cities as Alexandria in Egypt
-saw the consolidation of Greek civilization even after the political decline of the peninsula itself, as well as some important new cultural developments
Punic Wars
-264- 146 B.C.E.
-Rome fought the armies of the Phoenician city of Carthage*, situated on the northern coast of Africa
-included a bloody defeat of the invading forces of the brilliant Carthaginian general Hannibal, whose troops were accompanied by pack-laden elephants
Augustus Caesar
-Julius' grandnephew who seized power in 27 B.C.E, following another period of rivalry after Julius Caesar's assassination, and established the basic structures of the Roman Empire
Diocletian & Constantine
strong emperors who attempted to reverse the falling economy of Rome
polis
-city-state which correctly suggests that intense political interests were part of life in a city-state in both Greece and and Rome
-the "good life" for an upper- class Athenian or Roman included active participation in politics and frequent discussions about the affairs of state
direct democracy
major decisions were made by general assemblies in which all could participate- although usually only a minority attended
-not ruled through elected representatives
-Greece
Roman Senate
legislative body in Rome composed mainly of aristocrats, whose members held virtually all executive offices in the Roman state
consul
shared primary executive power in Rome with the Senate, but in times of crisis, the Senate could choose a dictator to hold emergency authority until the crisis had passed
Cicero
Roman writers who expounded eloquently on appropriate political ethics, the duties of citizens, importance of incorruptible service, and key political skills such as oratory
Aristotle
philosopher who stressed the importance of moderation and balance in human behavior as opposed to the instability of much political life and excesses of the gods themselves
Stoics
system that emphasized an inner moral independence, to be cultivated by strict discipline of the body and by personal bravery
Socrates
-born in 469 B.C.E
-encourage his pupils to question conventional wisdom, on the grounds that the chief human duty was "the improvement of the soul."
Plato
-Socrates great pupil who accentuated the positive somewhat more strongly by suggesting that human reason could approach an understanding of the three perfect forms- True, Good, and Beautiful- which he believed characterized nature
Sophocles
Athenian dramatist who so insightfully portrayed the psychological flaws of his hero Oedipus that modern psychology long used the term, "Oedipus complex" to refer to a potentially unhealthy relationship between a man and his mother
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
columns supporting Greeks' massive buildings
Axum & Ethiopia
-Axum defeated the kingdom of Kush in Africa by about 300 B.C.E & then, Ethiopia defeated Axum
-Axum and Ethiopia had active contacts with the eastern Mediterranean world until after the fall of Rome
Silk Road
roads that ran from western China across the mountains and steppes of central Asia to the civilized centers of Mesopotamia in the last millennium B.C.E. and to Rome, the Islamic heartlands, and western Europe in the first millennium and a half C.E.
Shintoism
Japan's religion
-provided for the worship of political rulers and the spirits of nature, including the all- important god of rice
Olmec culture
-American civilization (Central America)
-explored artistic forms in precious stones such as jade
-religious statues and icons blended human images with those of animals
-powerfully influenced later Indian civilizations in Central America
-scientific research produced accurate and impressive calendars
Teotihuacan
-the first city developed by the Olmecs in the Americas
-developed for trade and worship
Maya
American civilization from about 400 C.E. onward
Inca
civilization the arose in the Andes region in present-day Peru and Bolivia, where careful agriculture allowed construction of elaborate cities and religious monuments
Polynesian
people who have reached islands such as Fiji and Samoa by 1000 B.C.E. in the American civilization
-further exploration in giant outrigger canoes led to the first settlement of island complexes such as Hawaii by 400 C.E., where the Polynesians adapted local plants, brought in new animals (notably pigs), and imported a highly stratified caste system under powerful local kings
Yellow Turbans
Daoist leaders who promised a golden age that was to be brought about by divine magic
-attacked the weakness of the emperor but also the self- indulgence of the current bureaucracy
Tang Dynasty
sponsored one of the most glorious periods in Chinese history
-Confucianism and the bureaucratic system were revived, and indeed the bureaucratic tradition became more elaborate
Rajput
regional princes in India who controlled the small states and emphasized military prowess
Devi
mother goddess who was worshiped by Hinduists
-led to encouragement of a new popular emotionalism in religious ritual
Byzantine Empire
eastern empire of Rome
-was a product of late imperial Rome, rather than balanced result of the entire span of classical Mediterranean civilization
-language was Greek
Justinian
emperor of Byzantine Empire who ruled from 527 to 565 C.E.
-issued one of the most famous compilations of Roman law, in the code that bore his name
-his was the last effort to restore Mediterranean unity
Augustine
one of the greatest Christian theologians who was a bishop in north Africa
Coptic
church in Egypt that still survives as a Christian minority in that country
bodhisattvas
held that some people could attain nirvana through their own medication while choosing to remain in the world as saints and to aid others by prayer and example
Mayan
eastern form of Buddhism which retained abck Buddhist beliefs
Islam
submission*
-the self-surrender of the believer to the will of the one, true God, Allah
Muslims
followers of Islam who conquered an empire extending from Spain in the west to central Asia in the east-- an empire that combined the classical civilizations of Greece, Egypt, and Persia
Qur'an
the holy book containing Allah's revelation to Muhammad
bedouin
nomadic
-In the scrub zones of the Arabian peninsula on the edges of the empty quarters, or uninhabitable desert zones, a wide variety of bedouin, cultures had developed over the centuries, based on camel and goat herding
shaykhs
leaders of the tribes and clans elected by the elder advisors of the Arabian government
-they were almost always men with large herds, several wives, many children, and numerous retainers
Mecca
located in the mountainous region along the Red Sea on the western coast of Arabia
-was one of the most important cities that developed farther north as links in the transcontinental trading system that stretched from the Mediterraneans to east Asia
Umayyad
The Mecca city has been found by the Ummayad clan of the Quraysh bedouin tribe, and members of the clan dominated its politics and commercial economy
Ka'ba
one of the most revered religious shrines in pre- Islamic Arabia
-not only did the shrine attract pilgrims and customers for Mecca's bazaars, but at certain times of the year it was the focus of an obligatory truce in the interclan feuds
Medina
was originally named Yathrib in the northeast of Mecca
-another name was the city of Muhammad
Khadijah
-the widow of a wealthy merchant
-his life as a merchant in Mecca and on the caravan routes exposed Muhammad to the world beyond Arabia and probably made him acutely aware of the clan rivalries that has divided the peoples of the region for millennia
Ali
Muhmmad's clansman who at one point took Muhammad's place (when he was in danger) and thus risked becoming the target of assassins
-secured in 622 the safe passage of Muhammad and a small band of followers from Mecca to Medina -- the hijra, or flight to Medina, which marks the first year of the Islamic calendar
umma
community of the faithful that went beyond or exceeded old tribal boundaries in Arabia and it made possible a degree of political unity undreamed of before Muhammad's time
zakat
tax for charity that was obligatory in the Islamic faith
five pillars
1.) the confession of faith was simple and powerful: "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet."
2.) to pray, facing the holy city of Mecca, five times a day
3.) to fast during the month of Ramadan, enhanced community solidarity and allowed the faithful to demonstrate their fervor
4.) the zakat, or charity, also strengthened community cohesion and won converts from those seeking an ethical code that stressed social responsibility and the unity of all believers.
5) hajj, or pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, to worship Allah at the Ka'ba, drew together the faithful from Morocco to China
caliph
the political and religious successor to Muhammad
Abu Bakr
caliph from 632 to 634
-Muhammad's earliest followers and closest friends
-during when he was caliph, he was well versed in the genealogical histories of the bedouin tribes, which meant that he knew which tribes could be turned against each other and which ones could be enticed into alliances
Ridda Wars
-the defeat of rival prophets and some of the larger clans that soon brought about the return of the Arabian tribes to the Islamic fold
jihads
holy wars launched to forcibly spread of the Muslim faith, which has long been associated with Islam in the Christian West, misrepresents the forces behind the early Arab expansion
Copts and Nestorians
Christian sects of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule
Uthman
third caliph;
-his murder caused conflict by mutinous warriors retuning from Egypt
-his death was the signal for the supporters of Ali to proclaim him as caliph
-Uthman's unpopularity among many of the tribes, including those from the Medina and the prophet's earliest followers, arose in part from the fact that he was the first caliph to be chosen from Muhammad's early enemies, the Umayyad clan
Battle of Siffin
fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party
Mu'awiya
new leader of the Umayyads in 660
-was proclaimed caliph in Jerusalem, directly challenging Ali's position
Sunnis & Shi'a
the split between the Sunnis*, who backed the Umayyads, and the Shi'a*, or supporters of Ali, remains to this day the most fundamental in the Islamic world
-hostility between these two branches of the Islamic faithful was heightened in the years after Ali's death by the continuing struggle between the Umayyads and Ali's second son, Husayn
Karbala
site of death and defeat of Husayn, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi'a resistance to Umayyad caliphate
Damascus
the political center of community for the Umayyads & also where the Umayyads chose to live after the murder of Uthman
-from Damascus, a succession of Umayyad caliphs strove to build a bureaucracy that would bind together the vast domains they claimed to rule
Mawali
Muslim converts or non-Arab converts to Islam
jizya
head tax paid by all non-believers in Islamic territories
dhimmi
the greater portion of the population of the Umayyad empire
-"people of the book"
-as the name suggests, it was originally applied to Christians and Jews who shared the Bible with the Muslims
hadiths
traditions of the prophet, Muhammad, that have played such a critical role in Islamic law and ritual
-were recorded by woman
Abassid
party that traced its descent from Muhammad's uncle. al- Abbas
-openly challenged Umayyad armies by 747
-their great leader, Abu al Abbas, the great great grandson of Muhammad's uncle, led his forces from victory to victory
Battle on the River Zab
victory of Abassids over Umayyads; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital
Baghdad
capital of the Abassids
dhows
Arab sailing vessels with lateen (triangular) sails that later influenced European ship design
-carried the goods of one civilized core to be exchanged with those of another
ayan
wealthy and deeply entrenched landed elite who emerged in the early decades of Abassid rule
al- Mahdi
-(775- 785)
-third Abassid caliph
-Al- Mahdi's efforts to reconcile the moderates among the Shi'a opposition to Abassid rule ended in failure
-also abandoned the frugal ways of his predecessor
Harun al- Rashid
one of the most famous and enduring of the Abassid caliphs
-786- 809
Buyids
regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abassid Empire under the name of "sultan"; retained Abassids as figureheads
Seljuk Turks
group of nomadic invaders
-for the next two centuries, Turkic military leaders rule the remaining portions of the Abassid Empire in the name of caliphs, who were usually of Arab or Persian extraction
-Seljuks were staunch Sunnis, and moved to quickly to purge the Shi'a officials who had risen to power under the Buyids and to rid the caliph's domains of the Shi'a influences the Buyids had tired to promote
Crusades
-series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms; later sued for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy
Saladin
Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam
ulama
orthodox religious scholars who grew increasingly suspicious of and hostile to non- Islamic ideas and scientific thinking
al- Ghazali
brilliant thinker who was perhaps the greatest Islamic theologian
-struggled to fuse the Greek and Qur'anic traditions. Their ideas were often rejected by orthodox scholars (ulama).
Mongols
central Asian nomadic people who were united by their great war commander, Chinggis Khan*, who first raided in the 1220s and then smashed the Turko- Persian kingdoms that had developed in the regions to the east of Baghdad.
-Chinggis Khan died before the heartlands of the Muslim world were invaded, but his grandson, Hulegu*, renewed the Mongol assault on the rich centers of Islamic civilization in the 1250s
Mamluks
Turkic slaves who defeated the Mongols
-after defeat, they ruled Egypt
Muhammad ibn Quasim
Arab general
-conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire
Mahmud of Ghazni
third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression
Muhammad of Ghur
Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control
Qutb- ud- din Aibak
Lieutenant of Muhammad of Ghur; established kingdom of India with capital at Delhi; proclaimed himself Sultan of India
bhaktic cults
Hindu groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was object of their veneration; most widely worshiped gods were Shiva and Vishnu
sati
the burning of widows on the same funeral pyres as their deceased husbands, which was found among some high- caste Hindu groups
Mira Bai
celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected openness of bhaktic cults to women
Kabir
Muslim mystic during 15th century; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam
Demak
most powerful of the trading states on north coast of Java; converted to Islam and serve as point of dissemination to other ports
Malacca
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade among the southeastern Asian islands
Shrivijaya
far-flung trading empire that was centured on the Strait of Malacca between Malaya and the northeast of Sumatra
-opened the way for the widespread introduction of Islam
-Even though the Indian traders were welcome to trade in chain of ports controlled by Shrivijaya, there was little incentive for the traders and sailors of southeast Asian ports of convert to Islam due to the rulers and officials of Shrivijaya being devout Buddhists
stateless societies
societies that were organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority we normally associate with the state
Ifriqiya
the Arabic term for eastern north Africa
Maghrib
the Arabic word for western north Africa
Almoravids
a puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; controlled gold trade across Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076; moved southward against African kingdoms of the savanna and westward into Spain
Almohadis
reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Sahara Afirca
sahel
the extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara; a point of exchange between the forests to the south and northern Africa
Sudanic states
kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power in the region; based at Takrur on the Senegal River to the west and Gao on the Niger Rive to the east; included Mali and Songhay
juula
malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout Mali Empire; eventually spread throughout much of west Africa
Sundiata
the "Lion Price"; a member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died about 1260
griots
professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
Ibn Batuta
Arabic traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records
Timbuktu
port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River; population of 50000; contained a library and university
Songhay
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
Muhammad the Great
Extended the boudnaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid- 16th century
Hausa
peoples of northern Nigeria; formed states following the demise of Songhay Empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions
Zenj
Arabic term for the east African coast
Nok
culture featuring highly developed art style flourishing between 500 B.C.E.
Yoruba
city-states developed in northern Nigeria c. 1200 C.E.; Ile- Ife featured artistic style possibly related to earlier Nok culture; agricultural societies supported by peasantry and dominated by ruling family and aristocracy
Benin
powerful city- state (in present-day Nigeria) which came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485 but remained relatively free of European influence; important commercial and political entity until the 19th century
Kongo
Kingdom, based on agriculture, formed on lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy
Great Zimbabwe
Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers; developed after 9th century; featured royal courts built of stone; created centralized state by 15th century; king took title of Mwene Mutapa
Hagia Sophia
huge new church, which was long one of the wonders of the Christian world
-this was an achievement in engineering as well as architecture, for no one had previously been able to build the supports needed for a dome of its size
Belisarius
one of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of western Europe; commanded in north Africa and Italy
Greek fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Bulgaria
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014
icon
images of religious figures that became objects of veneration within Christianity of the Byzantine Empire; particularly prevalent in Eastern monasticism
iconoclasm
religious controversy within the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons; literally "breaking of images"; after long struggle, icon veneration was restored
Cyril & Methodius
missionaries sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic
Kiev
trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century
Rurik
legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kngdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.
Vladmir I
a Rurik descendant who rule from 980 to 1015, finally took the step of converting to Christianity, not only in his own name but on behalf of all his people
-rejected Islam religion due to their strict rule of forbading alcohol
-organized mass baptisms for his subjects, forcing conversions by military pressure
Russian Orthodoxy
Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments
Yaroslav
the last of the great Kievan princes who issued the legal codification while building many churches and arranging the translation of religious literature from Greek to Slavic
boyars
Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe
Tatars
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact
Middle Ages
period that featured gradual recovery from the shock of Rome's collapse and growing interaction with other societies, particularly around the Mediterranean
Manorialism
system of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers
moldboard
a better plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil
three field system
a third of the land was left unplanted each year to regain fertility
Clovis
a warrior chieftain who converted Christianity about 496 C.E. to gain greater prestige over local rivals, who were still pagan
Carolingians
a new family that took over the monarchy, which was based in Northern France, Belgium, and western Germany
Charles Martel
one founder of Carolingian line who was responsible for defeating the Muslims in the Battle of Tours in 732, although his victory had more to do with Arab exhaustion and an overextended invasion force than Carolingian strength
Charlemagne
a later Carolingian ruler that established a substantial empire in France and Germany around the year 800
-helped to restore some church- based education in western Europe, and the level of intellectual activity began a slow recovery, in part because of these efforts
Holy Roman emperors
emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor c. 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany
Taenia solium
ingest larvae in undercooked pork
ingest eggs -> cysticercosis and
neurocysticercosis
mass lesion in brain ("swiss cheese" appearance)
vassals
lesser lord (feudalism) who in turn owed their lords military service, some goods or payments, and advice for the land
William the Conqueror
duke who invaded England in 1066, extended his tight feudal system to his new kingdom; tied the great lords of England to his loyal court by bonds of loyalty, giving them estates in return for their military service
-also used some royal officials, called sheriffs, to help supervise the administration of justice throughout the kingdom
Magna Carta
Great Charter that confirmed feudal rights again monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy
Parliaments
bodies representing privileged groups such as the nobles and the church
-commons made up of elected representatives from wealthy citizens of the towns
-parliament gained the right to rule on any proposed changes in taxation
-similar institutions arose in France, Spain, Scandinavia, and several regions in Germany
key three estates
church, nobles, and urban leaders
Hundred Years' War
a long battle between the national monarchies of France & England- over territories the English king controlled in France and over feudal right versus the emerging claims of national states
Pope Urban II
called for the First Crusade in 1095, appealing to the piety of the West's rulers and common people
Gregory VII
one of the reform-minded popes who tried to purify the church and free it from interference by feudal lords
investiture
the practice of state appointment of bishops in Germany
Peter Abelard
author of "Yes and No" ; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine
-stressed the importance of mystical union with God; believed that reason was dangerous and proud and that God's truth must be received through faith alone
Bernard of Clairvaux
a powerful monk who successfully challenged Peter Abelard
-emphasized the role of faith alone
Thomas Aquinas
a leading figure and Italian-born monk; taught at the University of Paris
-through reason alone, humans could know much of the natural order, of moral law, and of the nature of God
-produced a host of "Summas," or highest works, that used careful logic to eliminate all possible objections to truth as revealed by reason and faith
Scholasticism
dominant medieval philosophical approach; so- called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve the logical problems
-demonstrate an unusual confidence in the logical orderliness of knowledge and in human ability to know
Hanseatic League
an organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commericial alliance
Guilds
-grouped people in the same business or trade in a single city, sometimes with loose links to similar guilds in other cities
-artisan guilds were made up of people in the cities who actually made cloth, bread, jewelry, or furniture; tried to limit their membership so that all members would have work; regulated apprenticeships to guarantee good training but also ensure that no member would employ to many apprentices and so gain undue wealth
-guilds played an important political and social role in the cities, giving their members recognized status and often a voice in the government
Black Death
plague that struck Europe in 14th century
-1348
Indian
misnomer (misapplied name) created by Columbus referring to indigenous peoples of New World; implies social and ethnic commonality among Native Americans that did not exist; still used to apply to Native Americans
Toltec culture
succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E.
Topiltzin
religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs; dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl; after losing struggle for power, went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula
Quetzalcoatl
Toltec deity; Feathered Serpent; adopted by Aztecs as a major god
Tenochtitlan
Founded c. 1325 on marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texcoco in1434 to form a triple alliance that controlled most of central plateau of Mesoamerica
Tlaloc
major god of Aztecs; associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle; god of rain
Nezhualcoyotl
Leading Aztec king of the 15th century
Huitzilopochtli
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god
calpulli
Clans in Aztec society, later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
chinampas
beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rotted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs
pochteca
special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items
Twantinsuyu
another word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Colombia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina
-was a highly centralized system that integrated various ethnic groups into an imperial state
-extensive irrigated agriculture supported a state religion and a royal ancestor cult (a particular system of worship)
Pachacuti
-Inca ruler from 1438-1471
-ruler in Inca world was "inca"*
-under him, the people launched a series of military alliances and campaigns that brought them control of the whole area from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
split inheritance
Inca practice of descent; all titles and political power went to successor; but wealth and land remained in the hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion*; held mummies of past Incas
huacas
sacred spirits and powers that resided or appeared in caves, mountains, rocks, rivers, and other natural phenomena; typical of Andean societies
curacas
local ruler of the Inca empire who were allowed to maintain their positions and were given privileges by the Inca in return fro their loyalty
-cuacas were exempt from tribute obligations and usually received labor or produce from those under their control
tambos
way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers fro Inca armies one move; relay points fro system of runners used to carry messages
mita
labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control
quipu
a system of knotted strings that recorded numerical and perhaps other information
-used by the Incas
-it worked like an abacus (a device for making arithmetic calculations, consisting of a frame set with rods on which balls or beads are moved), and with it the Incas took censuses and kept financial records
Wendi
a member of a prominent north Chinese noble family that had long been active in these contests, struck a marriage alliance between his daughter and the ruler of the northern Zhou empire
-seized the throne of his son- in- law and proclaimed himself emperor
-won support of neighboring nomadic military commanders
-reunited the traditional core areas of Chinese civilization for the first time in three and a half centuries with his victory over Chen
Yangdi
was a second member of Sui Dynasty; killed his father, Wendi for the throne
-extended his father's conquests and drove back the nomadic intruders who threatened the northern frontiers of the empire
-forcibly conscripted thousands of peasants to build palaces, a new capital city of Loyang, and a series of great canals to link various parts of the empire
-even before work on his many construction projects had been completed, Yangdi led his exhausted and angry subjects into a series of unsuccessful wars to bring Korea back under Chinese rule
-therefore, spread revolts throughout the empire
Li Yuan
known as the "Duke of Tang"; took over the empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang Dynasty
-was a minister of Yangdi
-laid the basis for the golden age of Tang
Changan
capital city of Tang dynasty
-larger than any other city
Ministry of Rites
administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
Jinshi
title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature
-their names were announced throughout the empire and their families were secured by the prospect of high office that was opened up by their success
-success in exams at all levels won candidates special social status
Chan or Zen Buddhism
stressed meditation and appreciations of natural and artistic beauty
Empress Wu
a Tang ruler who tried to elevate Buddhism to the status of a state religion
Wuzong
an emperor that openly persecuted Buddhism
-thousands of monasteries and Buddhist shrines were destroyed
-Buddhism was weakened and it ceased to be a dominant influence
-Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization for most of the period from the 9th to the early 20th century
Xuanzong
emperor who marked the peak of Tang power and the high point of Chinese civilization under the dynasty
-increasingly, his interest in running the vast empire waned
-became infatuated with Yang Huifei, a beautiful young women from the harem of one of the imperial princes
Zhao Kuangyin
foudner of Song dynasty; took title of Taizu
-could not overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent
-were weak on the part of the Song rulers dealing with the Khitan
Liao Dynasty
founded by nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria
-maintained independence from Song dynasty in China
Khitans
nomadic people that are influenced by Chinese culture
-military was superior to Song dynasty China
-forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
Zhu Xi
most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China
-stressed the importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
Neo- Confucians
revivers of ancient Confucian teachings
-Neo- Confucian thinking had a great impact on Chinese intellectual life
-the neo- Confucian emphasis on rank, obligation, deference, and traditional rituals reinforced class, age, and gender distinction
-believed that historical experiences was the best guide for navigating the uncertain terrain of the future
Tangut & Xi Xia
By the mid- 11th century, Tangut* tribes, originally from Tibet, had established a kingdom named Xi Xia* to the southwest of the Khitan kingdom of Lalo
Wang Ashi
the chief minister of the Song Shenzong emperor, who tried to ward off the impending collapse of the dynasty by introducing sweeping reforms
-introduced cheap loans and government-assisted irrigation projects to encourage agricultural expansion
Jurchens
a new nomadic contender in 115 who overthrew the Liao dynasty of the Khitans and established the Jin Kingdom north of the Song Empire
-annexed most of the Yellow River basin to what had become Qin Empire
Southern Song dynasty
was little more than a rump state carved out of much larger domains ruled by the Tang and northern-based Song
Grand Canal
was designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin more than 500 miles to the south
-Yangdi's Grand Canal was intended to facilitate control over the southern regions by courts, bureaucracies, and armies centered in ancient imperial centers such as Changan and Loyan in the north
Junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, rudder,s compasses, etc.
-dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Flying money
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to be redeemed at the end of the voyage
Hangzhou
located between a large lake and a river in the Yangtze delta
-it was crisscrossed by canals and bridges; famed for its wealth, cleanliness, and variety of diversions
-its location near the Yangtze and the coast of East China Sea allowed its traders and artisans to prosper through the sale of goods or the manufacture of products
Li Bo
most famous poet of the Tang era
-blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings
Taika reforms
attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese- style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
Fujiwara
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power
bushi
regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues, built up private armies
samurai
mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor
seppuku
ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara- kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor
Taira
powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with Minamoto family; defeated after Gempei Wars
Minamoto
defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th- century Japan
Gempei Wars
waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira
bakufu
military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai
shoguns
military leaders of the bakufu (military government in 12-th century Japan)
Hojo
warrior family closely allied with Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; claimed to rule in name of Japanese emperor at Kyoto
Ashikaga Takuaji
member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336- 1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino
Ashikaga Shogunate
replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority
daimyos
warlord rulers of 300 small states following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states
Chosun
earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han emperor in 109 B.C.E.
Koguryo
tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification
Silla
independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668
Paekche
independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century
Sinification
extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam
Yi dynasty
Korean dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence
Khmers
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south
Trung Sisters
leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 C.E.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society
tumens
basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10000 cavalry men; each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100, and 10
Muhammad Shah II
Turkic ruler of Muslim Khwarazm kingdom; attempted to resist Mongol conquest; conquered in 1220
kuriltai
meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected
khagan
title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes
Karakorum
capital of the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan
Golden Horde
one of the four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan's death, originally ruled by his grandson Batu; territory covered much of what is today south central Russia
Battle of Kulikova
Russian army victor over the forces of then Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia
Prester John
Name given to a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom had supposedly been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; Genghis Khan was originally believed to be this mythical ruler
Chabi
influential wife of Kublai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Chinese
White Lotus Society
secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule
Ju Yuanzhang
Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan in 14th century; founded Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China
Timur-i Lang
also known as Tamerlane; leader of Turkic nomads; beginning in 1360s from base at Samarkand, launched series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405
Zheng He
Chinese Muslim admiral who commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea trade expeditions under third Ming emperor, Yunglo, between 1405 and 1433; only Chinese attempt to create worldwide trade empire
Renaissance
rebirth
-a cultural and political movement grounded in urban vitality and expanding commerce, began in Italy during the fourteenth century
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497; established early Portuguese dominance in Indian Ocean
Francesco Petrarch
one of the major literary figures of the Western Renaissance; an Italian author and humanist
Castile and Aragon
regional kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda
Vivaldi Brothers
two Genoese brothers who attempted to find a Western route to the "Indies"; disappeared in 1291; precursors of thrust into southern Atlantic
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of western European expansion
Cape of Good Hope
southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India
Christopher Columbus
Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492; initiated European discoveries in Americas
Ferdinand Magellan
Spanish captain who in 1519 initiated first circumnavigation around the globe; died during the voyage; allowed Spain to claim Philippines
Dutch East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed
British East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in India; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed
Lepanto
naval battle between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire resulting in a Spanish victory in 1571; demonstrated European naval superiority over Muslims
core nations
nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international baking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials
mercantilism
economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe
mestizos
people of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; often part of forced labor system
Vasco de Balboa
first Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains
Francisco Pizarro
led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish
New France
French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system
Seven Years' War
fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America
Treaty of Paris
arranged in 1753 following Seven Years' War; granted New France to England in exchange for return of French sugar island in Carribean
Cape Colonoy
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus
Boers
Dutch settlers in Cape Colony, in southern Africa
Calcutta
headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinent; located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years' War; later became administrative center for all of Bengal
Niccolo Machiavelli
Author of "The Prince" (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance
humanism
focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages
Northern Renaissance
cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later in Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance
Francis I
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor
European style family
originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married
Protestantism
general wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief
Anglican church
form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
Jean Calvin
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
Catholic Reformation
restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs
Jesuits
a new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, Northern American, and Asia
edict of Nantes
grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598; granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions
Thirty Years' War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, and France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-- either Protestant or Catholic
English Civil War
conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1600 following execution of previous king
proletariat
class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries
Copernicus
Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe
Galileo
published Copernicus' findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work
John Harvey
English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump
Rene Descartes
established importances of skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th century); argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature
Isaac Newton
English scientist during the 17th century; author of "Principia"; drew the various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity
Deism
concept of God current during the Scientific Revolution; role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate once process was begun
John Locke
English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason; argued that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants
absolute monarchy
concept of voernment developed during the rise of nation-states in western Europe durign the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies
Louis XIV
French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy
Glorious Revolution
English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king
parliamentary monarchy
originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy
Adam Smith
established liberal economics ('Wealth of Nations", 1776); argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces
Enlightenment
intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior
Mary Wollstonecraft
Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women
Ivan III
Also know as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or Caesar -- equivalent of emperor
third Rome
Russian claim to be successor state to Roman and Byzantine empires; based in part on continuity of Orthodox church in Russia following fall of Constantinople in 1453
boyars
Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture
cossacks
peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements
Time of Troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613
Romanov dynasty
Dynasty elected in 1612 at end of Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917
Alexis Romanov
second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodoxy church
Old Believers
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization
Peter I
also known as Peter the Great; spn of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models
Catherine the Great
German- born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry
Pugachev rebellion
during 1770s in reign of Catherine the Great led by cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar, eventually crushed; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter
partition of Poland
division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
monarchs of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; Ferdinand's marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World
encomiendas
grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies
Hispaniola
first island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World
encomendero
the holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor. The encomendero was responsible for their integration into the church
Bartolome de Las Casas
Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights
Moctezuma II
Last independent Aztec emperor; killed during Hernan Cortes' conquest of Tenochtitlan
Mexico City
capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan
Hernan Cortes
led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitilan
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
leader of Spanish expedition in northern frontier region of New Spain;entered what is now United States in search for mythical cities of gold
Pedro de Valdivia
Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541
Huancavelica
Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosi
consulado
merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return
galleons
large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion
Treaty of Tordesillas
signed in 1494 between Castile and POrtugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain
letrados
university- trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions
Recopilacion
body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the INdies
Council of the Indies
body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World
viceroyalties
two major divisions of Spanish colonies in New World; one based in Lima; the other in Mexico City; direct representatives of the king
audiencias
royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were 10 in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system staffed by professional magistrates
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
author, poet, and musician of New Spain; eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil
capitaincies
strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the colony
Paulistas
backwoodsmen from Sao Paulo in Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during 17th century
Minas Gerais
region of Brazil located in mountainous interior where gold strikes were discovered in 1695; became location for gold rush
Rio de Janeiro
Brazil port; close to mines of Minas Gerais; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763
sociedad de castas
American social system based on racial origins; Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Native Americans at bottom, mised races in middle
amigos del pais
clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called fro material improvements rather than political reform
War of the Spanish Succession
resulted from Bourbon family's succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights of English and French
Charles III
Spanish enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759 to 1788; instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire
Jose de Galvez
Spanish minister of the West Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants for local government
Marquis of Pombal
Prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy
Comunero Revolt
one of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Colombia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels
Tupac Amaru
Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution
factories
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce
El Mina
most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa
Nzinga Mvemba
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title of Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom
Luanda
Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola
Royal African Company
Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia
Indies piece
term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for Africa trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave
triangular trade
commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe
Asante Empire
established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650
Osei Tutu
member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms
asantehene
title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool
Dahomey
Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves
Fulani
people of western Sudan; adopted purifying into Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, lauched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto
Luo
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro
great trek
movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions of north of Orange River and Natal
mfecane
wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa
William Wilberforce
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807
Lesotho
southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government
Middle passage
slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16th-18th centuries); generally a traumatic experience for black slave, although it failed to strip Africans of their culture
saltwater slaves
slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black
Creole slaves
American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation
obeah
African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands
candomble
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people
vodun
African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti
Suriname
formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America; location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence despite attempts to crush guerrilla resistance
Palmares
kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8000 to 10000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan
Ottoman
Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed II; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world
Safavid dynasty
originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722
Mughal Empire
established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century
Mehmed II
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire
Janissaries
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century
Sail al- Din
Early 14-th century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty
Red Heads
Name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear
Isma'il
Sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor
Chaldiran
site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology
imams
according to Shi'ism, rulers who could trace descent from Ali
Mullahs
local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism
Isfahan
Safavid capital under Abbas the Greatl planned city laid out according to shah's plan; example of Safavid architecture
Nadir Khan Afshar
soldier - adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom
Babur
founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended form Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530
Humayan
son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter
Din- i - Ilahi
religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India, but failed
Aurangzeb
son and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military successes; died in 1707
Nur Jahan
wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal empire during later years of Jahangir's reign
Mumtaz Mahal
wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal
Marattas
Western India people who rebelled against Mughal control early in 18th century
Siks
sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge differences between Hindu and Muslim, but Mughal persecution led to anti- Muslim feeling