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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define treatment
targeted administration of a drug to individual diseased animals or groups
Define control
administration of a drug to groups of animals based on the fact that some of the animals are diseased
Define prevention
administration of a drug to a group of animals prior to an outbreak of disease (none of them are clinically ill)
What is the clinical definition of resistance?
a strain is resistant when it survives antimicrobial therapy in the animal
What are some indicators of resistance?
increased case fatality rate
increased recovery time
increased treatment required
persistence of disease or shedding
What is the microbiological definition of resistance?
a strain that grows in the presence of higher concentrations of antimicrobial than is expected compared to other related strains
What is the difference between inherent and acquired resistance?
Inherent resistance is due to physical properties of the bacteria that allow tolerance, while acquired resistance is a trait associated with specific strain mutations or gene acquisition
What is phenotypic resistance?
a strain that grows at higher MIC than the determined breakpoint
How quickly did resistance to Penicillin develop?
almost as soon as it became widely used (within 1 or 2 years!)
Where are most human resistant infections acquired?
at the hospital
(NOT from animals, although that can occur)
What is NARMS?
national antimicrobial resistance monitoring system
- tracks antimicrobial resistance in the United States in humans, livestock and retail meat samples
What factors are contributing to the global issue of AMR?
changes in production systems
changes in animal trading
increased movement of animals and products
lack of global initiative to control it
increased human travel
What are some common resistance mechanisms bacteria use?
penicillin binding protein
reduced transport into the bacterial cell
alteration of binding sites
enhanced metabolism of the drug
alternative pathways to "work around" the blockage imposed by the drug
How is vertical transmission different than horizontal transmission of resistance factors?
vertical is inheritance from the parent organism
horizontal is cell to cell transfer, such as by uptake of free DNA, bacteriophage transfer or conjugation
How are resistant organisms spread?
direct (contact)
indirect (food, water, environment)
Why is AMR different between species?
different levels of exposure
different interactions between bacteria and animal species
How does short term stoppage of antimicrobial use affect resistance?
It doesn't change much, it takes many years of not using them for organisms to decrease their resistance
What is the main thing to consider when using antimicrobials?
prudent use of the right drug at the right time for the right infection