Antibiotic Resistance Issues

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Antibiotic Resistance Issue
Background
In the daily life, we will hear a variety of drug tolerance. Some of them happens on the body, per se. For example, diabetes patients’ long-term use of insulin will reduce the efficacy of insulin. And abuse of pain reliever for those chronic pain patients declines the effects as well. Differently, antibiotic resistance produces tolerance towards pathogen in the body rather than the organism itself. Plus, the pathogen will spread—that is why antibiotic resistance becomes a global issue causing wide public concern no matter whether you use antibiotic. According to the definition, antibiotic resistance refers to that the change of microbes including bacteria, virus, fungi, and parasite,etc disables the drug
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In 1922, British scientist Alexander Fleming found an enzyme, i.e. lysozyme in the nasal secretion, can defend the microbes. Six years later, he finally extracted penicillin. However, this important discovery didn’t begin to be applied to clinical use until 1944.In 1932, the scientists of Bayer AG occasionally found Prontosil, a red diazo compound, which is effective towards streptococcus infection as well as aureus septicemia. This epoch-making discovery shocked the whole medical profession. Sulfanilamide saved numerous bacterial infection patients over and over again. In 1944, microbiologist Selman Walksman developed Streptomycin, which makes tuberculosis curable. Later on, his group gradually developed more than 20 types of antibiotic according to his summarized skills. Between 1940’s to 1950’s, human found Chlortetracycline,chloramphenicol,nystatin,erythromycin,and kanamycin in succession. In this decades, human entered antibiotic age that we began to apply antibiotic to clinical use widely. In 1956, Vancomycin was used for Gram-positive bacterial infection. Since 1980’s, quinolones developed sharply because it was seldom affected by the bacteria

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