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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

"Anthropology" is Latin and stands for....

the scientific study of all human beings in all times and places.

What are the goals of anthropology?

-describe, analyze, and explain different societies and cultures

-show how groups adapted to their environments and gave meaning to their lives

-comprehend the entire human experience

What is the holistic approach?

It considers culture, history, language, and biology as essential to a complete understanding of society. It separates anthropology from other disciplines by seeking to understand human beings as whole organisms who adapt to their environments through a complex interaction of biology and culture.

Define "ethology."

The study of animals in their natural environment.

Define "ethnography."

The scientific description of the customs of a society, its people, and their culture.

Define "ethnology."

The study of people in various environments and the similarities, differences, and relationships between them.

Define "zoonosis."

When a disease jumps from one species to another.

Where did HIV/Aids come from?


What are the five primary fields of specialization in anthropology?

1. Cultural

2. Linguistic

3. Archaeology

4. Biological (physical)

5. Applied

What's a sixth field of specialization in anthropology?

Trench anthropology- accepting poverty and working in anthropology because you love it.

What is cultural anthropology?

The study of human behavior that is learned rather than genetically transmitted and is typical of groups of people.

What is culture?

Made up of learned behaviors, involves use of Language and Symbols, patterned and integrated to some degree, shared by members of a group, adaptive, and subject to change.

True or false: tension between progressives and conservatives is a healthy dynamic for a society to have.

True. Progression always wins out in the end, but the conservatives keep things from advancing too quickly.

What is the purpose of cultural anthropology?

To describe, analyze, interpret, and explain social and cultural similarities and differences.

What's the difference between ethnology and ethnography?

Ethnology is a cross-cultural comparison, while ethnography is fieldwork in a particular culture.

What are some examples of cultural anthropology?

-political: concerned with issues of nationalism, citizenship, the state, colonialism, and globalism

-humanistic: focused on the personal, ethical, and political choices facing humans.

-visual: the study of visual representation and the media.

What is linguistic anthropology?

It focuses on understanding language and its relation to culture. Historical linguists study how languages are related to each other.

Language expresses, reinforces, and perpetuates _______________.

Cultural models.

What does ethnolinguistics do?

Tries to extract rules of communication through participant observation.

What is sociolinguistics?

It is concerned with the study of patterns of linguistic variation as derived from different speech situation.

Speech differences can reveal social differences such as gender, class, region, race, ethnicity, and occupation.

What is archaeology?

The study of past cultures through their material remains.

Define "artifacts."

Material remains of a past culture.

Define "features."

artifacts that cannot easily be removed, such as ruins of buildings, burials, and fire pits.

What are some areas of specialization in archaeology?

-urban archaeology: investigation of current-day cities

-Cultural Resource Management (CRM): protection and management of archaeological, archival, and architectural resources.

What is biological anthropology?

It studies humans from a biological perspective.

Define "paleoanthropology."

Biological processes of human adaption.

Define "human variation."

Physiological differences among modern humans.

Define "primatology."

Study of apes for clues about the human species.

What is medical anthropology?

It is concerned with the experience of disease as well as its distribution, prevention, and treatment.

What is forensic anthropology?

The study and identification of skeletized or badly decomposed human remains.

What is applied anthropology?

It seeks to analyze social, political, and economic problems and develop solutions.

Define "enculturation."

The process of learning a culture.

Define "symbol."

Something that stands for something else.

Define "ritual."

Formal, repetitive behavior involving symbols.

Who are indigenous people?

Groups of people who have occupied a region for a long time and are recognized by other groups as original inhabitants.

What is ethnocentrism?

The belief that one's own culture is better than any or all other cultures (often ethnocentrism is just tribal pride, but it can lead to ethno-arrogance, which is not as innocent).

Define "anomie."

A condition where social and moral norms are absent or confused.

Define "racism."

It is often defined as the belief that some human populations are superior to others because of inherited, genetically transmitted characteristics.

Racism- belief that race exists.

Racialism- belief that one race is superior over another.

What is biological diversity?

There is a wide diversity in human shapes and colors, but low levels of skeletal and blood type diversity. Also, people from the same region tend to share traits with each other.

What is bio-psychological equality?

The fact that all human groups have the same biological and mental capabilities.

Race is....... (two words).

Socially constructed.

What is cultural relativism?

Understanding values and customs in terms of the culture of which they are a part.

Define "emic."

Describes the organization and meaning a culture's practices have for its members.

Define "etic."

Tries to determine the causes of particular cultural patterns that may be beyond the awareness of the culture being studied.