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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What criteria was needed for science to emerge (1800s)?

1. new theoretical base

2. new methodology

3. different subject matter

4. generalizations derived from newly generated facts/data

Michel de Montaigne

"Of Cannibals."

John Locke

"Essay Concerning Government."

Charles Darwin

"On the Origin Species."

"The Descent of Man."

Herbert Spencer

"The Social Organism."

Lewis Henry Morgan

"Ancient Society."

E. B. Tylor

"Primitive Culture."

What events occurred in the age of discovery?

1415: Portugese sailors explore Africa.

1488: Bartolomeu Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope.

1498: Vasco de Gama reaches India from around Africa.

1492: Christopher Columbus.

Who invented the essay?

Michel de Montaigne.

Who was Hans Staden?

A rich German who wanted to see the West Indies and was captured by the cannibal tribe Tupinamba. The Tupinamba believed he was magic and let him go. He wrote about his experiences and changed society's view of these "savages."

What did Michel de Montaigne write about?

He wrote about Tupinamba, how cannibalism could be seen as heroic, and a point counter-point about the horrors of execution and torture, asking who the real savages were.

What did John Locke write about?

The concept of tabula rasa ("scraped tablet") that knowledge comes only though experience and thus relativism is more important than evolution.

Why did John Locke believe some people were better than others?

Because of their culture, not their biology.

What idea did Herbert Spencer influence?

Social Darwinism.

What did Herbert Spencer say regarding society and evolution?

Society is like an organism, and evolution is a progression from simple to complex societies.

How did Herbert Spencer define a primitive society?

1. simple technology

2. undifferentiated social structure

3. lacking economic specialization

What is Social Darwinism?

The belief that evolution is progress, and that natural selection is the survival of the fittest.

It validated the domination of Western powers.

How does Social Darwinism justify colonialism, racism, and imperialism?

It says the conquest of an inferior society by superior is a moral imperative based on natural laws.

Who was Edward Burnett Tylor?

One of the first real anthropologists.

State Edward Burnett Tylor's definition of culture.

"...that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."

Define "animism," and state who developed it.

Belief that early peoples could not discern between dreams and reality, subject/object, so all things, even inanimate objects, were attributed a soul and spiritual essence.

Edward Burnett Tylor.

Define "survival," and state who developed the concept.

A behavioral trait that survives and is perpetuated even after the original purpose has been forgotten.

Edward Burnett Tylor.

Lewis Henry Morgan said that societies pass through which three universal stages?

1. savagery

2. barbarism

3. civilization

Discern the three stages from each other.

savagery- stone tools

barbarism- metal tools

civilization- written language

What is comparative method?

It made "primitive" societies analogous to living fossils.

What is the Psychic Unity of Mankind?

All humans have identical ideas; same stages of thought; "everyone is like me."

What is parallel development?

Given enough time, savage people would become barbarians, and barbarians would become civilized.

What is politics?

Politics is nothing more than the ability to persuade someone else to do what we want them to do.