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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Early Modern Homo

160,000 - 6000 yBP

- time of significant population increase

-development of new technologies

-introduction of cave art (spain and france)

Early Modern Homo: Appearance

- reduced face

- small teeth

- vertical forehead

- rounded skull

- gracile infracranial skeleton

Early Modern Homo in Africa

200,000 - 6,000 yBP

Omo (195,000 yBP):

- Ethiopia

- oldest evidence of modern humans

Klasies River Mouth Cave (90,000 yBP):

- South Africa

- had a chin

Early Modern Homo in Asia

90,000 - 18,000 yBP

Skhul V (90,000 yBP)

- distinctively modern

- dates before Neandertals

Early Modern Homo in Eastern Europe

35,000 - 15,000 yBP

Pestera cu Oase, Romania

- Earliest modern (35,000 yBP)

- skull distinctly modern (oase 2)

- reduced brow ridge

- gracile

Early Modern Homo in Western Europe

35,000 - 15,000 yBP

Cro-magnon Cave, France

- 30,000 - 25,000 yBP

- warm adapted features

- vertical forehead, small aperture and brow ridges,and body long and narrow.

Modern Homo Origins

1. Out-of-Africa (stringer)

- First evolved in Africa and then spread to Asia and Europe, replaced archaic homo popn. single origin of modern people by eventual replacement

2. Multiregional Continuity (Wolpoff)

- transition to modernity took place regionally without any replacement, african archaic equals african modern.

Origins Summary


- correctly accounts for the origin of the modern human variation

-incorrectly asserts no gene flow occurred between Neandertals and modern humans


- correctly accounts for gene flow and neandertal contribution

- incorrect about regional development of modern homo

Assimilation Model

By: Smith and Trinkanus

- 200,000 - 100,000 yBP popn of modern homo left Africa, then encountered Neandertals in Europe. They could breed with each other.

- Disappearance of Neandertals after 30,000 yBP likely due to assimilation by a much larger genetically diverse popn.

Modern Humans and Migration

First Wave out of Africa

- H.Erectus spread rapidly throughout Asia and Europe

Second Wave out of Africa

- Early modern H. sapiens assimilated and eventually replaced descendants of H.Erectus in Asia and Europe.

Last 50,000 years of Pleistocene fully modern people spreading out beyond Europe and Asia; first in Aus then in America

Why Migrate?

1. Popn increase

2. Disappearance of food resources

3. Increased competition

4. Climate deterioration

*popn outgrowing their carrying capacity, ending in mass migration.

Australian and Pacific Migrations

- Late Pleistocene sea levels as much as 90 m below current levels, exposure of landmass - Australia, new guinea and Tasmania all one landmass.

- Still boating tech and navigation skills required.


Lake Mungo (40,000 yBP)

- earliest evidence of humans

- 2 crania with modern characteristics

Kow Swamp (13,000-9,000 yBP)

- shares features with H.erectus and other indonesian hominins meaning regional continuity

Homo floresiensis

-2003 skeleton with highly unusual characteristics

- tiny brain 400 cc

- 3.5 ft tall

- 100,000 - 60,000 yBP

- Not a different species but suffering from microcephaly or other genetic disorder.

First Americans

- founding popn about 800 individuals

- dental and genetic evidence suggests northeastern asia were the direct ancestors of American indigenous groups

Beringea (siberia to alaska)

- sea levels all time low

- approx 15,000 yBP

North America

Paleoindians (11,500 yBP)

- stone artifacts (clove and folsom)

- large, fluted, bifacial projectile points

- hunted various animals -megafauna

- extinction by early Holocene


Differed from modern indigenous groups

- long narrow skulls

- robust face

- mastication muscle attachments


- short round skulls

- gracile faces

Kennewick Man

Washington State (8400 yBP)

- long narrow skull

- robust jaw and face