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18 Cards in this Set

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Early Modern Homo

160,000 - 6000 yBP


- time of significant population increase


-development of new technologies


-introduction of cave art (spain and france)



Early Modern Homo: Appearance

- reduced face


- small teeth


- vertical forehead


- rounded skull


- gracile infracranial skeleton

Early Modern Homo in Africa

200,000 - 6,000 yBP


Omo (195,000 yBP):


- Ethiopia


- oldest evidence of modern humans


Klasies River Mouth Cave (90,000 yBP):


- South Africa


- had a chin

Early Modern Homo in Asia

90,000 - 18,000 yBP


Skhul V (90,000 yBP)


- distinctively modern


- dates before Neandertals

Early Modern Homo in Eastern Europe

35,000 - 15,000 yBP


Pestera cu Oase, Romania


- Earliest modern (35,000 yBP)


- skull distinctly modern (oase 2)


- reduced brow ridge


- gracile

Early Modern Homo in Western Europe

35,000 - 15,000 yBP


Cro-magnon Cave, France


- 30,000 - 25,000 yBP


- warm adapted features


- vertical forehead, small aperture and brow ridges,and body long and narrow.

Modern Homo Origins

1. Out-of-Africa (stringer)


- First evolved in Africa and then spread to Asia and Europe, replaced archaic homo popn. single origin of modern people by eventual replacement


2. Multiregional Continuity (Wolpoff)


- transition to modernity took place regionally without any replacement, african archaic equals african modern.

Origins Summary

OofA:


- correctly accounts for the origin of the modern human variation


-incorrectly asserts no gene flow occurred between Neandertals and modern humans


MRC:


- correctly accounts for gene flow and neandertal contribution


- incorrect about regional development of modern homo

Assimilation Model

By: Smith and Trinkanus


- 200,000 - 100,000 yBP popn of modern homo left Africa, then encountered Neandertals in Europe. They could breed with each other.


- Disappearance of Neandertals after 30,000 yBP likely due to assimilation by a much larger genetically diverse popn.

Modern Humans and Migration

First Wave out of Africa


- H.Erectus spread rapidly throughout Asia and Europe


Second Wave out of Africa


- Early modern H. sapiens assimilated and eventually replaced descendants of H.Erectus in Asia and Europe.


Last 50,000 years of Pleistocene fully modern people spreading out beyond Europe and Asia; first in Aus then in America

Why Migrate?

1. Popn increase


2. Disappearance of food resources


3. Increased competition


4. Climate deterioration


*popn outgrowing their carrying capacity, ending in mass migration.

Australian and Pacific Migrations

- Late Pleistocene sea levels as much as 90 m below current levels, exposure of landmass - Australia, new guinea and Tasmania all one landmass.


- Still boating tech and navigation skills required.

Australia

Lake Mungo (40,000 yBP)


- earliest evidence of humans


- 2 crania with modern characteristics


Kow Swamp (13,000-9,000 yBP)


- shares features with H.erectus and other indonesian hominins meaning regional continuity

Homo floresiensis

-2003 skeleton with highly unusual characteristics


- tiny brain 400 cc


- 3.5 ft tall


- 100,000 - 60,000 yBP


- Not a different species but suffering from microcephaly or other genetic disorder.

First Americans

- founding popn about 800 individuals


- dental and genetic evidence suggests northeastern asia were the direct ancestors of American indigenous groups


Beringea (siberia to alaska)


- sea levels all time low


- approx 15,000 yBP

North America

Paleoindians (11,500 yBP)


- stone artifacts (clove and folsom)


- large, fluted, bifacial projectile points


- hunted various animals -megafauna


- extinction by early Holocene

Paleoindians

Differed from modern indigenous groups


- long narrow skulls


- robust face


- mastication muscle attachments


Modern


- short round skulls


- gracile faces

Kennewick Man

Washington State (8400 yBP)


- long narrow skull


- robust jaw and face