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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

primordial follicles

egg cell (primary oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells. These secrete progesterone, oestrogen and some inhibin.

Primary follicles

Next stage in the development over the 14 days. The zona pellucida forms between the primary oocytes and the granulosa cells.

Gap junctions

Are used to provide nutrients to the primary oocyte through the zona pellucida and granulosa cells.

pre antral follicle

The granulosa cells astart to divide in this stage and are greater in number so it becomes bigger.


forms around the outside of the cell and has receptors for leutinising hormone. When it binds, it produces androstenodione which stimulates the granulosa cells to produce oestrogen. Therefore the oestrogen levels rise in the blood.


The granulosa cells produce fluid which fills the middle cavity meaning the cell becomes bigger and pushes outwards

Dominant follicle

The one egg out of 28 days that gets ovulated from the antrum


All of the other eggs in the cycle are lost (around 15-20)

Mature follicle

The antrum still increases in size and therefore pushes against the wall. Enzymes then breakdown this wall and this is how the eggs is ovulated. This is what causes pain. When there is more than one egg going into the philopian tube, it can bring triplets and twins.

corpus luteum

The granulosa cells produce more oestrogen, inhibin and progesterone


Reduces the amount of follcile stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland therefore stopping follicle maturation

No fertilisation

The corpus luteum degenerates by apoptosis

What happens if there is fertilisation?

The corpus luteum keeps alive so it can keep producing more progesterone and oestrogen

lutenising hormone

Produced by the anterior pituitary gland and is used to produce androstendione from thecal cells during the follicular phase which in turn produces oestrogen by the granulosa cells

proliferation phase

The oestrogen makes the endometrium lining increase.


stops the anterior pituitary from producing FSH.

HOrmonal changes during the follicular phase.

FSH and LH rise at the start of the phase due to GnRH. FSH and LH stimulate the release of oestrogen from the follicle. Oestrogen inhibits the release of FSH but not LS so there is a LH surge.

Luteal surge

High Oestrogen levels cause the inhibition of FSH but not of LUteunising hormone and therefore there is a surge. This causes Ovulation.

Hormonal changes during the luteal phase.

The corpus luteum produces a lot of progesterone which inhibits the production of FSH and LH which means after 10 days the corpus luteum degenerate. FSH and LH are no longer inhibited by progesterone and therefore a new cycle begins.

What is the function of the corpus luteum?

the oestrogen that is released is responsible for the endometrium lining thickening and progesterone is responsible for endometrium development and maintenance. Progesterone, as previously described, also inhibits FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

After the muteal phase and the new cycle begins, what happens on around day 4?

The endometrium lining disintigrates and bleeding occurs due to ruptured blood vessels from the endometrium and expelled as menstrul fluid.

what is the site of fertilisation?

the oviduct.

what hormone tells the corpus luteum to keep producing progesterone?

hCG. (means the endometrium is maintained).

Corpus albicans

What the corpus luteum degenerates into

The placenta

Is an endocrine organ as it produces hCG which maintains the secretion of progesterone which maintains the endometrium.

During parturition, what causes contractions?

Oxytocin positive feedback.


Oestrogen and progesterone cause the development of ducts and a;veoli in mammary glands. Suckling triggers the release of oxytocin and prolactin which causes milk ejection and synthesises more milk.