Case Study 3: Diabetes In Australia

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produced so that it can be dissolved into the moisture in the body is excreted. Tadpoles already live in water so this is not a problem for the ammonia is diluted right away. (The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians, 2010)

Case Study 3: Diabetes in Australia

Diabetes is a complex disease that affects the pancreas’s ability to produce insulin. Insulin is the hormone that regulates blood sugar, and without it leads serious damage to the body (WHO, 2015). It is a growing issue in Australia, and now the biggest challenge facing the health system. Approximately 1.7 million Australians have diabetes. As of December 31 2015, 1,034,498 people were registered on the NDSS with having type 2 diabetes (NDSS, 2015). A steady rise from the 2013 statistic
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2. Determine between which days the froglet leaves the water? Explain your answer with reference to your graph.

The day that the froglet left the water was day 80. A dip in the graph is seen, which indicates a change in a variable. The day it left the water is also the day the percentage of ammonia in excretion started to decrease. Ammonia is water-soluble so when in diluted with water is not that toxic, however burns when not diluted. The ammonia in the waste would have to decrease as the frog left the water because otherwise its waste would burn the frog. As it kept growing, the amount of excreted ammonia shrank to a point where it was low enough to be diluted by water in the system.

3. Give two different reasons why ammonia is an excretory product of tadpoles, but not of frogs. Make links between the excretory product and habitat. Justify your decisions

In early development tadpoles excrete equal amounts of ammonia and urea, and switch to primarily urea when evolved. Frogs need to excrete uric-based acid because it allows them to reabsorb most of the water in urine before expelled. This helps save water if sources are scarce. Tadpoles do not need this because they live in the
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FSH and LH start development of the follicle. After around 12 days the level of estrogen peaks. The high estrogen level has a positive feedback loop, which fuels the release of FSH and LH. The increase in LH causes the follicle to rupture, and the follicle cells that remain grow into the corpus luteum. When the follicle is mature, progesterone levels rise to stimulate the growth of the uterine lining in preparation for a fertilised egg. Progesterone has a negative feedback loop with the hypothalamus that inhibits GnRH, as well as FSH and LH. The decrease in the latter two stops the want for follicle growth. If there is no fertilisation the corpus luteum starts to shrink which lowers the progesterone and estrogen released. This happens after 10 days and menstruation begins. (The Ovarian And Menstrual Cycle

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