• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Location of cartilage
- ear and epiglottis (elastic)
- articular cartilages
- coastal cartilages
- Larynx, trachea, nose
- intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis and articular discs (fibrocartilages)
tissue surrounding cartilage
main component of cartilage
Main characteristic of cartilage
resilient tissue - it springs back to original shape
3 types of cartilage - main characteristic
1) Hyaline - most abundant
- provides support through flexibility
2) elastic - (elastic fibers)
- able to tolerate repeated bending
3) fibrocartilage
- resists strong compression and strong tension
2 types of growth of cartilage
1) appositional growth - chondroblasts in surrounding perichondrium produce new cartilage
2) interstitial growth - chondrocytes within cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
when cartilage stops growing
when the skeleton stops growing
Types of tissue in bone
1) bone connective tissue
2) nervous tissue
3) blood connective tissue
4) cartilage
5) epithelial tissue lining blood vessels
Primary function of bone and 5 other functions
Primary: support - framework
1) movement - use bones as levers
2) protection - of underlying organs
3) mineral storage
4) blood-cell formation - red marrow
5) Energy metabolism - osteoblasts secrete osteocalcin
composition of bone
unique extracellular matrix
- 35% organic components which contributes to flexibility and tensile strength
- 65% inorganic components - provide hardness, resists compression
organic components of bone
cells, fibers and ground substance
inorganic components of bone
mineral salts that are in the matrix
4 types of cells in bone
1) osteogenic cells - stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts
2) osteoblasts - actively produce and secrete bone matrix
3) osteocytes - keep bone matrix healthy
4) osteoclasts - resorption of bone when calcium is needed
bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts
how osteoclasts work
- derived from a line of white blood cells
- resorption of bone by secreting hydrochloric acid (dissolves minerals) and lysosomal enzymes (digests organic components
4 classifications of bone
1) long bones - longer than wide, shaft plus ends (humerus)
2) short bones - roughly cube shaped (talus)
3) flat bones - thin, usually curved (sternum)
4) Irregular bones - various shapes that don't fit elsewhere (vertebra)
Structure of a typical long bone
1) Diaphysis - shaft of a bone
2) epiphysis - ends
3) blood vessels & nerves (bleeds when broken)
4) medullary cavity - hollow cavity filled with yellow marrow
5) Periosteum membrane - outside
6) perforating fibers/Sharpey's fibers) - blood vessels which penetrate the periosteum
7) endosteum membrane - lines medullary cavity
Structure of short, irregular and flat bones
contain bone marrow but no marrow cavity
internal spongy bone of flat bones
Where compression and tension are greatest in a bone
at the external surfaces - thus that is where the compact bone is
- a hollow tube is actually stronger than a solid rod
3 categories of bone markings
1) projections for muscle attachment
2) surfaces that form joints
3) depressions and openings
make up of compact bone
1) passageways for blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves
2) osteons - long cylindrical structures - resemble rings of a tree
4 things that osteons contain
1) lamellae
2) central canal
3) perforating canals (for nerves, and veins)
4) canaliculi
small needle-like or flat pieces in spongy bone that make up the honeycomb effect
- open spaces are filled with red or yellow bone marrow
structure of spongy bone
trabeculae contain layers of lamellae and osteocytes (are too small for osteons)
synonym and meaning of ossification
- osteogenesis
- bone-tissue formation
intramembransous ossification
Membrane (flat) bones are formed directly from mesenchyme
endochondral ossification
long bones (non-membrane) develop initially from hyaline cartilage
-form late in 2nd month of embryonic development
- continues forming until early adulthood
organization of epiphyseal plates of growing bones
- cartilage cells form tall stacks
-chondroblasts at the top of stacks divide quickly
- pushes the epiphysis away from the diaphysis and lengthens the entire bone
- older chondrocytes signal surrounding matrix to calcify
- the older chondrocytes then die and disintegrate leaving long trabeculae of calcified cartilage on diaphysis side
- osteoblasts cover trabeculae with bone tissue
- trabeculae finally eaten away form their tips by osteoclasts
4 zones of cartilage in the epiphyseal plate of a long bone
1) resting zone
2) proliferation zone -where cartilage cells undergo mitosis
3) hypertropic zone - older cartilage cells enlarge
4) Calicificaiton zone - matrix becomes calcified; cartilage cells die; matrix begins deteriorating
5) ossification zone - new bone formation is occurring
Hormones that regulate bone growth
1) growth hormone - from pituitary gland - stimulate epiphyseal plates
2) thyroid hormone - ensure that the skeleton retains proper proportions
3) sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone) - promote bone growth and later induce closure of epiphyseal plates
When long bones stop lengthening
when diaphysis and epiphysis fuse
Bone remodeling
- 500 mg of calcium may enter or leave the adult skeleton each day
- cancellous bone of the skeleton is replaced every 3 - 4 years
- compact bone is replaced every 10 years
Bone is dynamic living tissue
appositional growth of endochondral bone
growth of a bone by addition of bone tissue to its surface - i.e. growing bones widen as they lengthen
- osteoblasts add bone tissue to the periosteal (external) surface of the diaphysis
- osteoclasts - remove bone from the internal (endosteal) surface of the diaphysis
where an osteoclast comes from
hematopoietic stem cells
Stages in the healing of a bone fracture
1) hematoma - blood that clots - inflammation
2) fibrocartilaginous callus formation - new blood vessels; bone-fomring cells from periosteum and endosteum invade the clot and fill it with soft callus which becomes dense CT with fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage.
3) bony callus formation - within a week trabeculae of new bone forms - by endochondral ossificaiton. Trabeculae unite the 2 fragments of bone
4) bony remodeling - takes many months for compact bone to form the shaft walls and resemble original unbroken bone.
6 types of fracture
1) comminuted - bone fragments into 3 or more pieces (happens more with older people)
2) spiral - ragged break from twisting force (sports)
3) depressed - broken bone portion is pressed inward (skull)
4) compression - bone is crushed (common in osteoporotic bones in a fall)
5) epiphyseal - epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate
6) Greenstick - bone breaks incompletely - only one side of shaft breaks and the other side bends (common in children)
cause of osteoporosis
bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposition
- is characterized by low bone mass
bone disorder - inadequately mineralized (adult)
bone disorder - bones inadequately mineralized - in children)
Paget's disease
bone disorder - excessive rate of bone deposition
form of bone cancer
What makes up the skeleton
bones, cartilage, joints and ligaments
2 divisions of the skeleton + main components
1) axial skeleton - 80 bones; skull, vertebral column and bony thorax
2) appendicular skeleton - 126 bones; pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, upper and lower limbs
Most complex bony structure in the body
2 divisions of the skull and purpose of each
1) cranium - enclose and protect brain; provide attachment for head and neck muscles
2) facial bones -
a) form framework of the face
b) form cavities for the sense organs of sight, taste and smell
c) provide openings for the passage of air and food
d) hold teeth in place
e) anchor muscles of the face
3 fossa in the skull
1) anterior cranial fossa
2) middle cranial fossa
3) posterior cranial fossa
- formed by ridges
Cavities in the skull
1) middle and inner ear cavities - lateral aspect of cranial base
2) nasal cavity - in & posterior to the nose
3) orbits - eyes
4) air-filled sinuses - in several bones around the nasal cavity
types of openings in the skull and purpose
- foramina, canals and fissures
- provide openings for important structures: spinal cord, blood vessels, 12 pairs of cranial nerves
sutural bones
small bones that occur within sutures - irregular in shape, size and location
supraorbital margin
frontal bone - superior margin of orbits
smooth part of frontal bone between supercillary arches
regions of the temporal bone
1) squamous - smooth flat part
2) tympanic - around external acousitc meatus
3) petrous - projects medially, cranial base - has cavities of middle and internal ear
4) mastoid - site for neck muscle attachment; air sinuses
foramina of the temporal bone
1) jugular foramen - boundary with occipital
2) carotid canal
3) foramen lacerum
4) internal acoustic meatus
keystone of the crainum
key openings in the sphenoid
1)optic canal
2) foramen rotundum
3) foramen ovale
4) foramen spinosum
location of the ethmoid bone
between nasal and sphenoid bones
- forms most of the medial bony region between the nasal cavity and orbits
location of olfactory foramina
cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
largest and strongest facial bone
location of largest paranasal sinuses
only 2 facial bones that aren't paired
mandible and vomer
the keystone bones of the face
maxillary bones
bone pair that articulates with all facial bones except the mandible
maxillary bones
bones that form the nasal cavity
1) ethmoid (superior and middle nasal concha
2) nasal
3) inferior nasal concha
4) maxillary bone (palatine process)
5) sphenoid bone
6) Palatine bone
7) vomer
purpose of the paranasal sinuses
lighten the skull
bones that form the roof of the orbit
lesser wing of sphenoid
orbital plate of frontal bone
bones that form the lateral wall of orbit
1) frontal bone (zygomatic process)
2) greater wing of sphenoid bone
3) zygomatic bone
bones that form the floor of the orbit
bones that form the medial wall of the orbit
sphenoid body
Number of bones in the vertebral column in an adult
function of vertebral column
1) transmit weight of trunk to the lower limbs
2) surround and protect the spinal cord
3) serve as attachment for muscles of the neck and back
what holds the vertebral column together
1) anterior longitudinal ligaments
- attaches to bony vertebrae and intervertebral discs - connects the bodies
- prevents hyperextension (back)
2) posterior longitudinal ligaments
- narrow and weak; prevents hyperflexion (forward)
- attaches to intervertebral discs
3) ligamentum flavum - connects the lamina
purpose and types of curvatures of the spine
- increase resilience of the spine
1) cervical and lumbar - concave posteriorly
2) thoracic and sacral - convex posteriorly
primary curvatures of the spine
thoracic and sacral - present at birth
curvature of the spine that develops when baby learns to walk
components of intervertebral discs
1) nucleus pulposus (jelly like inner sphere)
- absorbs compressive stresses
2) anulus fibrosus - contains the nucleus puposus
- outer rings formed of ligament; inner rings formed of fibrocartilage
types of movement that occur between vertebrae
1) flexion and extension
2) lateral flexion
3) rotation in the long axis
identifying features of C3-C7 vertebrae
1) spinous processes are short and bifid (forked at end) - except for C7
2) transverse processes contain transverse foramina (for arteries)
identifying features of C1
- purpose
- name
- the atlas
- lacks a body (dens of axis is where the body would be)
lacks a spinous process
- flexion and extension of neck (nodding yes)
identifying features of C2
- purpose
- name
- axis
- dens (odontoid process) projects superiorly
- participates in rotating the head from side to side (nodding no)
identifying features of thoracic vertebrae
- purpose
1) all articulate with ribs (T10-T12 have a single facet together)
- transverse processes articulate with tubercles of ribs
2) heart-shaped bodies from the superior view
3) spinous processes are long and point inferiorly
4) vertebral foramina is round
- allows rotation & prevents flexion & extension
identifying features of Lumbar vertebrae
- purpose
1) bodies are thick & robust
2) spinous processes are thick, blunt and point posteriorly
3) vertebral foramina are triangular
- allows flexion and extension - rotation prevented
sacral promontory
where first sacral vertebrae bulges into pelvic cavity
"wings" on either side of the superior sacrum that develop from fused rib elements of s1-s5
what forms the posterior aspect of pelvis
2 types and the purpose of the sacral foramina
1) ventral - passage for ventral rami of sacral spinal nerves
2) dorsal foramina - passage for dorsal rami of sacral spinal nerves
sacral canal
depression on the superior side of the sacrum - a continuation of the vertebral canal
number of vertebrae in the coccyx
3 to 5
components of the thoracic cage
thoracic vertebrae
sternum and costal cartilage
purpose of thoracic cage
1) protect thoracic organs
2) support shoulder girdle and upper limbs
3) provides attachment sites for muscles
costal cartilage that attach to the body of the sternum
for ribs 2 to 7
3 anatomical landmarks in the sternum
1) jugular notch - indentation on superior border
2) sternal angle - ridge where the manubrium joins the body
3) xiphisternal joint - where sternal body and xiphoid process fuse; lies at the level of the 9th thoracic vertebra
cleft palate
congenital - right and left halves of palate fail to fuse medially
stenosis of lumbar spine
narrowing of the vertebral canal - can compress roots of spinal nerves
3 types of abnormal spinal curvatures
1) scoliosis - abnormal lateral curvature
2) Kyphosis - exaggerated thoracic curvature
3) Lordosis - accentuated lumbar curvature - swayback
when membrane bones begin to ossify
2nd month of development
parts of the skull that are endochondral bones
1) occiptial
2) sphenoid
3) ethmoid
4) parts of temporal
(the others form by intramembranous ossification)
articulations on both ends of the clavicle
- name of lateral joint
- medial end: articulates with the manubrium and the first rib
- lateral end: articulates with the scapulae - acromio-clavicular joint
purpose of the pectoral girdle
provides attachment for many muscles that move the upper limb
difference between glenoid cavity and the actebulum
- glenoid cavity is shallow - good for flexibility and bad for stability
- the actabulum is deep - good for stability and bad for flexibility
purpose of clavicle
1) provides attachment for muscles
2) hold the scapulae and arms laterally
3) transmit compression forces from the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
rib location of the scapulae
between ribs 2 and 7
regions of the upper limb
1) brachium
2) antebrachium
3) manus
interosseous menbrane
- interconnects the radius and ulna in the antebrachium
- interconnects the tibia and fibula in the leg
what each bone in the antebrachium contributes to
- radius contributes to wrist - when it moves, the hand moves
- ulna contributes to the elbow - little to no role in hand movement
the head of the radius articulates with...
1) superior - with the capitulum
2) medially - with the radial notch of the ulna
arrangement of carpal bones
2 rows (from lateral to medial)
Proximal: scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform
Distal: trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
purpose of pelvic girdle
1) attaches lower limbs to the spine
2) supports visceral organs
components of the pelvic girdle
2 coxal bones and the sacrum
- each coxal is made of 3 bones - a) ilium - superior region of coxal
b) ischium - posteroinferior region of coxal
c) pubis - anterior region of coxal
articulation between sacrum and ilium
sacroiliac joint
strongest part of the hip bone
ischial tuberosities
2 parts of the pelvis
1) false (greater) pelvis - inferior to the pelvic brim (wider)
2) true (lesser) pelvis - superior to the pelvic brim (narrower)
- forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs
Differences between male & female pelves
Android (male)
Gynecoid (female): lighter, wider and shallower
purpose of the lower limbs
carry the weight of the erect body
3 segments of the lower limbs
1) thigh
2) leg
3) foot
sesamoid bone
- sesamoid = floating
purpose of tibia and fibula
- tibia - articulating with the femur is the knee joint
- fibula - stabilizes the ankle joint
functions of the foot
1) support body weight
2) act as a lever to propel bod forward when walking
3) segmentation makes foot pliable and adapted to uneven ground
tarsus that bear the body weight
- other tarsus
talus and calcaneus
- cuboid, navicular, medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms
trochlea of the talus
site of articulation with the tibia
big toe
3 arches in the foot
- location
- keystone
- purpose of arches
1) medial longitudinal arch - from heel to 1st metatarsal
- keystone - talus
2) lateral longitudinal - lateral edge of foot (very low)
- keystone - cuboid
3) transverse arch - across foot along line of joints between the tarsals and metatarsals
- distribute half of the weight to the heel bones and half to the heads of the metatarsals
support for the arches
1) interlocking shapes of tarsals
2) ligaments and tendons
hip dysplasia
head of the femur slips out of acetabulum
soles of feet turn medially
Functional classification of joints
1) synarthroses - immovable
2) Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable
3) Diarthroses - freely moveable (all synovial joints)
Structural classification of joints
1) fibrous
2) cartilaginous
3) synovial (cavity)
3 types of fibrous joints
1) suture - connected by very short interconnecting fibers (skull)
2) syndesmosis - connected by ligaments (tibia and fibula)
3) gomphosis - peg in socket - (periodontal ligament)
2 types of cartilaginous joints
1) synchondrosis (hyaline)
- epiphyseal plates, joint between first rib and manubrium
2) symphysis (fibrocartilage) - resists tension and compression
- intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis
- slightly moveable - strength with flexibility
6 types of synovial joints
1) plane
2) hinge
3) pivot
4) condyloid
5) saddle
6) ball and socket
closed sutures
contents of joint cavity
1) synovial fluid
2) articular cartilage on the end of opposing bones
Articular capsule
2 layered capsule that encloses the joint cavity and makes the joint more stable
2 layers in the articular capsule
1) fibrous capsule - dense irregular - strengthens the joint
- outer lining
2) synovial membrane - loose C.T. - lines joint capsule and covers internal joint surfaces; makes synovial fluid
- inner lining
make up of synovial fluid
viscous fluid; a filtrate of blood; contains glycoprotein molecules
location of reinforcing ligaments
thickened parts of fibrous capsule
- sometimes extracapsular ligaments (outside the capsule)
- sometimes intracapsular ligaments (inside)
where most of the blood supply in a joint goes
to the synovial membrane
how synovial joints function
as lubricating devices to keep the joint from overheating and the bones from touching
- synovial fluid is squeezed out when opposing articular cartilages touch so the cartilage ride on the slippery film
- when the pressure ceases the fluid goes back into the articular cartilages which are like sponges
3 basic types of movement in synovial joints
1) gliding - one bone across the surface of another
- carpals, tarsals, vertebrae
2) angular movement - changes angles between bones
3) rotation - movement around a bone's long axis
- only movement of C1 and C2; vertebral column; hip and shoulder
3 types of angular movements
1) flexion and extension
- decreases angle; increases angle
2) abduction and adduction
- away from body; toward midline
3) circumduction
- circular motion
special movements of joints
1) elevation - lifting a body part superiorly (shrugging shoulders)
2) depression - moving the elevated part inferiorly(opening jaw)
3) protraction and retraction(jutting jaw forward, bringing it back)
4) supination (palm up) and pronation (palm down)
5) opposition - thumb moves across the palm to touch the tips of other fingers
special movements with feet
1) inversion (sole of foot medially); eversion (sole of foot out)
2) dorsiflexion (toes toward shins); plantar flexion (elevates heel)
most complex synovial joints
structural classification of the knee
compound and bicondyloid (both femur and tibia have 2 condylar surfaces
joint formed with patella
femoropatellar joint
3 ligaments that cover anterior part of the knee
patellar ligament
medial and lateral patellar retinacula
what is covered by the capsule of the knee joint
posterior and lateral aspects; tibial and femoral condyles
when ligaments of the knee joint are taut
when the knee is extended
capsular and extracapsular ligaments of the knee
1) fibular and tibial collateral ligament
2) oblique popliteal ligament
3) arcuate popliteal ligament
(all in back)
What the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments connect
- the proximal tibia to the distal femur
movements prevented by the anterior cruciate and posterior cruciate
- anterior - anterior sliding of the tibia
- posterior - prevents forward sliding of the femur or backward displacement of the tibia
What tears with a lateral blow to the knee
1) tibial collateral ligament
2) medial meniscus
3) anterior cruciate ligament
factors that stabilize the synovial joints
1) Ligaments - prevent excessive motion (together with capsules)
- the more the stronger and more stable
2) articular surfaces - the shape determines possible movements
- adds to stability in elbow, hip and ankle
3) muscle tone - keeps tension on tendons
- esp important in shoulder, knee and arches of foot
inflammation of a bursa due to injury or friction
inflammation of a tendon sheath
3 main types of arthritis
1) osteoarthritis - wear and tear (most common)
2) rheumatoid - chronic inflammatory disorder
3) Gouty arthritis - uric acid build-up causes pain in joints
lyme disease
inflammatory disease often resulting in joint pain
a flattened fibrous sac lined by a synovial membrane (reduce friction)
- subacromial bursa
Tendon sheath
an elongated bursa that warps around a tendon - reduces friction