• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Nephros, renalis


Organs of Urinary system

-Kindeys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

Urinary system functions

-Maintains purity of blood and other body fluids by disposing of waste products

-regulates blood volume and chemical makeup


-from breakdown of amino acids

Uric acid

-from nucleic acid turnover


-formed by creatine phosphate

Kidneys -- External Gross Anatomy

-Reddish brown color, bean shaped, retroperitoneal

-Lateral surface is convex, medial is concave

Right kidney

-Right kidney is slightly inferior to left (crowded by liver)


-area where blood vessels, nerves pass

Renal capsule

-surrounds each kidney (dense CT layer) maintains shapes

-Cushioning by fat layers


-Outer region of KIDNEY

-Renal corpuscles (filters)


-Inner region of KIDNEY

Medullary (renal) pyramids

-base and apex (papilla); are striated (group of nephrons)

Lobes of kidneys

- Pyramid + Cortical tissue

Renal sinus

-space in medial portion of kidney, opening to hilum - contains renal vessels, nerves, fat, renal pelvis, and calices

Renal pelvis

-flat tube, superior portion of ureter


-extension of renal pelvis, major or minor (cup-shaped tubes that surround papillae (apex) of the pyramids


-Rich blood supply, around 20-25% of hearts systemic output

-Renal arteries deliver blood TO kidneys

-Each artery divides into 5 segmental arteries


-Trace artery pathway in reverse WITH THE EXCEPTION of lobar and segmental veins

-Renal veins exit kidney and empty into IVC


-Renal plexus (SYMPATHETIC innervation)

Uriniferous (renal) tubule

-structural and functional unit of kidney

-crowded together into kidney

-surrounded by LOOSE CT (interstitial CT)

2 major parts of the Uriniferous (renal) tubule


-Collecting duct


-major part of the uriniferous tubule

-formed by a renal corpuscle, promixal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule

Kidneys produce urine by?





-Blood filtrate enters nephron


-nutrients, water, ions are returned to blood


-undesired substances move from blood to urine

Renal corpuscle (filtration)

-Located in cortex


-In renal corpuscle

-"ball" of capillaries with many pores

-Surrounded by glomerular capsule

-has filtration membrane

Glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule)

-contains capsular space


-filter between blood and capsular space

Proximal convoluted tubule

-Located in cortex, most active in reabsorption and secretion

Loop of Henle

-extends into medulla

-Descending limb

-Ascending limb

Descending limb of Loop of Henle

-THIN segment (narrowest part of nephron)

Ascending limb of Loop of Henle

-Portion of THIN segment

-THICK segment

Distal convoluted tubule

-Located only in renal cortex

-Performs some reabsorption and secretion

-Conserves body fluids

Nephron classes



Cortical: Nephron class

-located mostly in CORTEX (loop of Henle extends into medulla)

Juxtamedullary: Nephron class

-renal corpuscles are loacted at cortex-medulla border; have long loops of Henle

Collecting Tubules (Ducts)

-receive urine from many nephron

-Runs into medulla and combines with others to form papillary ducts, which empty into calices

-Site where ADH acts


-increases permeability of collecting tubules

-causes more water to be reabsorbed (concentrated urine)


-One per kidney, approx. 25 cm long

-Carry urine FROM kidneys TO bladder

-Begins at level of L2 and runs retroperitoneally through abdomen and enters (true) pelvis to get to bladder

-Enters bladder obliquely (prevents backflow)

Layers of Ureters




What causes contraction of ureters

-Distention causes contraction (peristaltic waves)

Urinary bladder

-Collapsible, distensible and muscular

-Stores and eliminates urine

Urinary bladder location

-inferior to peritoneal cavity, posterior to public symphysis

Males (urinary bladder)

-anterior to rectum


-anterior to vagina uterus

Detrusor muscle of bladder

-contains muscular layer

-squeezes out urine


-Thin-walled tube, drains URINE from body

Urethra composition

-Composed of smooth muscle and inner layer of mucosa (slightly different composition in males and females)

Internal urinary sphincter

-located between bladder and urethra, involuntary control

External urinary sphincter

-located at distal end of urethra, voluntary control


-Emptying the bladder

-Detrusor muscle contract, assisted by abdominal wall muscles

-Controlled by brain


-inability to control micturition

Renal calculi (kidney stones)

-Minerals in urine crystallize

-Most can pass, but some become too big and obstruct a ureter


-infection of renal pelvis and calices


-infection of entire kidney

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)

-genetic disorder

Cysts (fluid filled sacs)

-form and enlarge