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98 Cards in this Set

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collection of specialized cells working together to perform specific tasks

embryonic germ layer (three layers)

ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm


forms into the nervous tissues


forms into the muscle and connective tissues


forms the inner lining of the digestive track

where is epithelial tissue located?

exposed surfaces, covering digestive and respiratory organs, lining the walls and organs of the ventral body cavity, forming glands throughout the body


structures that produce secretions

characteristics of epithelial tissue (5)

cellularity, avascularity, innervated, regeneration, polarity


has no blood vessels


has nerve fibers

apical surface of epithelial tissue

exposed upper surface

basal surface of epithelial tissue

provides lower attachment to basement membrane

epithelial tissue functions (4)

provide physical protection, control permeability, provide sensation, produce specialized secretions


unique epithelium for senses

glandular epithelium

layers of epithelium that all cells are capable of secretion

classification of epithelial cells; shape (3), layering (2)

squamous, cuboidal, columnar; simple, stratified

simple squamous; functions (3), locations (3)

allows for filtration and diffusion, absorbs materials, secretes lubrication to reduce friction; air sacs of the lungs, inner lining of blood vessels & heart, kidney glomeruli

simple cuboidal; functions (2), locations (5)

absorbs, secretes; thyroid gland, glandular tissue, ducts throughout the body, portions of kidney tubules, surface of the ovaries

simple columnar; functions (2), locations (4)

absorbs nutrients, secretes mucus and enzymes; lining of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, small bronchi in the lungs, uterine tubes, portions of the uterus

pseudostratified; function (3), locations (3)

secretes mucus, protection, uses cilia to move mucus; lines nasal cavity, lines trachea and upper respiratory tract, portions of sperm carrying ducts of the male reproductive tract

stratified squamous; functions (1), location (3)

protection against abrasion, pathogens, foreign and chemical attacks; surface of the skin, layers of the mouth and esophagus, lining of the rectum, anus, and vagina

stratified cuboidal; functions (3), locations (2)

protection, secretion, absorption; rarely seen within the body, ducts of mammary glands and sweat glands

Stratified columnar; function (1); location (2)

protection; small amounts are found within the pharynx and the male urethra, sometimes within the mammary gland

transitional cells; function (1), location (1)

expansion and retraction of tissues, lines ureters, urinary bladder, and a portion of the urethra

endocrine glands

release hormones directly into interstitial fluid

exocrine glands

produce secretions onto epithelial surfaces; mucus, sweat, oil, saliva

unicellular exocrine glands

single celled; found in the respiratory and intestinal tracts

multicellular exocrine glands

structurally more complex; two major units (epithelial derived duct, secretory unit)

simple ducts

has a single duct that is not divided on its way to a gland

compound ducts

duct divides one or more times on the way to the gland

tubular secretory unit

cells for a tube

alveolar/acinar secretory unit

form empty sacs or cavities

tubuloalveolar secretory unit

combination of both tubular and alveolar/acinar

merocrine secretion

release by vesicles through exocytosis; sweat glands

apocrine secretion

released by shedding apical portion of a cell and cytoplasm; portion of mammary glands

holocrine secretion

released by rupturing cells & killing gland cells; gland cells replaced by underlying cell layers; sebaceous glands


mesodermal embryonic tissue that develops into connective tissue

connective tissue functions (6)

establishing structural framework; protects organs; stores energy; provides insulation; defends from invading microorganisms; transporting fluids and dissolved materials


builds connective tissue proper


build cartilage tissue


builds bone tissue


builds blood cells

extracellular matrix

surrounds cells; made up of protein fibers and ground substance

ground substance

unstructured materials, fill space between cells, contain protein fibers

collagen fibers

most common fibers in connective tissue proper; long, straight, and unbranched; strong and flexible to resist force in one direction

reticular fibers

network of interwoven fibers; strong and flexible to resist force in multiple directions; stabilize functional cells and structures within the body

elastic fibers

contain protein elastin; branched and wavy; return to original length after stretching


the most abundant cell type; found in all connective tissue proper; secrete proteins and hyalauronan


cellular cement


the second most abundant cell type; maintain the fibers of connective tissue proper


immature cells actively making matrix material


mature cells not actively making matrix


fat cells; each cell stores a single, large fat droplet

mesenchymal cells

stem cells that respond to injury or infection


synthesize and store the brown pigment melanin


large, amoeba-like cells of the immune system; eat pathogens and damaged cells

fixed macrophages

stay within tissue

free macrophages

migrate through tissue

mast cells

stimulate inflammation after injury or infection; release histamine and heparin


stimulates inflammation




specialized immune cells in lymphatic system; may develop into plasma cells

plasma cells

produce antibodies


phagocytic blood cells; respond to signals from macrophages and mast cells

loose connective tissues

the "packing materials" of the body; three types in adults: areolar, adipose, reticular

areolar tissue; function, locations, structure

cushion organs, defense against diseases, holds blood vessels and capillary beds; below the dermis of the skin, surrounds organs, around both joints and blood vessels; least specialized, contains all 3 fiber types

adipose tissue; function, locations, structure

provide padding and cushion for shocks, insulation against heat loss, storing energy for later use; underneath the layers of the skin (sides, buttocks, breasts), padding around eyes and kidneys; contains adipocytes (fat cells), large triglyceride in the center,

two types of adipose tissue

white fat, brown fat

white fat

pale yellow-white color; most common adipose tissue, stores fat, absorbs shocks, acts as insulation

brown fat

deep reddish brown color; when stimulated by nervous system, fat breakdown accelerates, releasing energy;

reticular tissue; function, location, structure

complex, three-dimensional support network, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow;

dense connective tissues

tightly packed with high numbers of collagen or elastic fibers; dense regular, dense irregular, elastic tissue

dense regular connective tissue; function, location, structure

attached muscles to bone, attaches bone to bone, withstand tensile stress; tightly packed and parallel collagen fibers, few elastic fibers, fibroblasts are the primary cell type

dense irregular connective tissue; function, location, structure

withstand tension, provide structural support; forms capsules around some organs, layered in skin, around cartilages, around bones; interwoven networks of irregularly arranged collagen fibers, fibroblasts are the primary cell type

elastic tissue; function, location, structure

allows tissue to stretch, cushion shocks, stabilizes positions; walls of arteries, ligaments of spine, ligaments supporting penis; made of elastic fibers, fibroblasts are the primary cell type

cartilage features

stands up to both tension and compression, no nerves except for perichondrium layer, avascular, ground substance is made of dense network of collagen and elastic fibers, matrix is made up of 80% water


2 layers; outer layer for protection; inner layer cellular layer for growth


cartilage making cells


mature cartilage cell


small chambers within cartilage where chondrocytes sit

types of cartilage growth

interstitial growth and appositional growth

interstitial growth

enlarges cartilage from within, chondrocytes divide, most important during development

appositional growth

adds more layers to the surface, cells within the perichondrium divide repeatedly making chondroblasts, as the new cells age form chondrocytes, increases the size of cartilage

types of cartilage (3)

hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

hyaline cartilage; function, location, structure

supports and reinforces, acts as a cushion against compression; ends of long bones, coastal cartilage, nose, trachea, larynx; collagen fibers forms a network of chondroblasts; chondroblasts form the matrix and lacunae

elastic cartilage; function, location, structure

maintains shape and structure, flexible; external ear and epiglottis; network of collagen fibers, more elastic fibers in matrix

fibrocartilage; function, location, structure

high tensile strength against compression, prevents bone to bone contact, limits movement; between pubic bone, intervertebral discs, pads knee joint; thick collagen fibers

bone or osseous tissue

ability to support and protect body structures, provides cavities for fat storage and blood cell creation


produce organic portions of the matrix


mature cells reside in lacunae;


the double layered sheath for each bone similar to perichondrion; covers bone surfaces

fibrous layer (of periosteum)

attaches to surrounding tissue

cellular layer (of periosteum)

is in charge of growth

fluid connective tissue: blood

does not actually connect or give support to things; carry specific cell types

red blood cells (erythrocytes)

carries oxygen to regions of the body

white blood cells (leukocytes)

part of the immune response


necessary for blood clotting

blood; function, location, structure

transport respiratory gases and nutrients and waste; blood vessels; red and white blood cells and platelets within plasma