• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A request
from software to the OS to access hardware or
other software using a previously defined procedure
that both the software and the OS understand.
application program interface (API) call
Installing an OS on a new hard drive or
on a hard drive that has a previous OS installed,
but without carrying forward any settings kept
by the old OS, including information about
hardware, software, or user preferences.
Clean install
A line or part of a line in a program that is
intended as a remark or comment and is ignored
when the program runs. A semicolon or an REM is
often used to mark a line as a comment
comment line
A component of Windows
Plug and Play that controls the configuration
process of all devices and communicates these
configurations to the devices.
configuration manager
A condition that results when the hard
drive is excessively used for virtual memory because
RAM is full. It dramatically slows down processing
and can cause premature hard drive failure.
disk thrashing
A type of Autoexec.bat file that is executed
by Windows 9x/Me in two situations: when
you select Restart the computer in MS-DOS mode
from the shutdown menu or you run a program in
MS-DOS mode.
A Windows utility that can record detailed
information about the system, errors that occur, and
the programs that caused them in a log file.
dr. watson
A Windows 9x/Me utility that compresses
files so that they take up less space on a
disk drive, creating a single large file on the disk
to hold all the compressed files
A Windows error
that occurs when a program attempts to access
a memory address that is not available or is no
longer assigned to it.
General Protection Fault (GPF)
A core Windows
component responsible for building graphics data
to display or print.
GDI (Graphics Device Interface)
The Windows 9x/Me
component that configures all devices and communicates
these configurations to the device
IFS (Installable File System)
Configuration information files
for Windows. System.ini is one of the most important
Windows 9x/Me initialization files.
initialization files
A VxD that is loaded into memory at
startup and remains there for the entire OS session.
static vxd
In Windows, swapping blocks of
RAM memory to an area of the hard drive to
serve as virtual memory when RAM is low.
memory paging
4K segments in which Windows NT/2000/XP
allocates memory.
The Windows 9x/Me System Configuration
Editor, a text editor generally used to edit system
A file used by
Windows to describe the environment for a DOS
program to use.
PIF (program information file)
A Windows initialization file that contains
network configuration information.
An update to software that corrects an error,
adds a feature, or addresses security issues.
patch Also
called an update or service pack.
Wasted space on a hard drive caused by not
using all available space at the end of clusters.
A VxD that is loaded and unloaded
from memory as needed.
dynamic vxd
A text configuration file used by
Windows 3.x and supported by Windows 9x/Me
for backward-compatibility.
An area to the right of the taskbar
that holds the icons for running services; these
services include the volume control and network
system tray
The installation of an OS on a hard
drive that already has an OS installed in such a
way that settings kept by the old OS are carried
forward into the upgrade, including information
about hardware, software, and user preferences.
upgrade install
A Windows 9x/Me component
that controls the mouse, keyboard, ports, and
user component
In Windows, the name and value of a setting
in the registry.
value data
A Windows
device driver that may or may not have direct
access to a device. It might depend on a
Windows component to communicate with the
device itself.
virtual device driver (VxD or VDD)
One or more logical machines created
within one physical machine by Windows,
allowing applications to make serious errors
within one logical machine without disturbing
other programs and parts of the system.
virtual machine
A Windows 9x/Me
program that controls virtual machines and the
resources they use including memory. The VMM
manages the page table used to access memory.
VMM (Virtual Machine Manager)
The only Windows 9x/Me
Plug and Play component that is found in Windows
98 but not Windows 95. WDM is the component
responsible for managing device drivers that work
under a driver model new to Windows 98.
WDM (Win32 Driver Model)
The Windows initialization file that contains
program configuration information needed for
running the Windows operating environment. Its
functions were replaced by the registry beginning
with Windows 9x/Me, which still supports it for
backward compatibility with Windows 3.x.
The name of the Windows 9x/Me swap
file. Its default location is C:\Windows.
An IP address that is used on a
private TCP/IP network that is isolated from the
private IP address
A server that acts as an intermediary
between another computer and the Internet.
proxy server
An IP address available to the
public IP address
A computer concept whereby one computer
(the client) requests information from
another computer (the server).
An IP address permanently
assigned to a workstation.
static IP address
A subnet mask is a group of four numbers
(dotted decimal numbers) that tell TCP/IP if
a remote computer is on the same or a different
subnet mask
The suite of protocols that supports
communication on the Internet. TCP is responsible
for error checking, and IP is responsible for routing.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
A network or group of
networks that span a large geographical area.
WAN (wide area network)
A data encryption
method used on wireless networks that uses either
64-bit or 128-bit encryption keys that are static
keys, meaning the key does not change while the
wireless network is in use.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
IEEE specifications for wireless
communication and data synchronization
Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11a
Microsoft resolution service with a distributed
database that tracks relationships between NetBIOS
names and IP addresses. Compare to DNS.
WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service)
A type of LAN that does
not use wires or cables to create connections,
but instead transmits data over radio or infrared
wireless LAN (WLAN)
A data encryption
method for wireless networks that use the
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption
method and the encryption keys are
changed at set intervals while the wireless LAN
is in use.
WPA (WiFi Protected Access)
A data encryption
standard compliant with the IEEE802.11i standard
that uses the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
WPA2 (WiFi Protected Access 2)
A protocol that
TCP/IP uses to translate IP addresses into physical
network addresses (MAC addresses).
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
A protocol such as UDP
that does not require a connection before sending
a packet and does not guarantee delivery. An
example of a UDP transmission is streaming video
over the Web
best-effort protocol or connectionless protocol
A transmission technique that carries
more than one type of transmission on the same
medium, such as cable modem or DSL.
A technology that uses cable TV lines
for data transmission requiring a modem at each
end. From the modem, a network cable connects
to an NIC in the user’s PC, or a USB cable connects
to a USB port.
cable modem
A technique used by browsers
(clients) to speed up download times by caching
Web pages previously requested in case they are
requested again.
client-side caching
A protocol such as UDP
that does not require a connection before sending
a packet and does not guarantee delivery
connectionless protocol
In networking, a protocol
that confirms that a good connection has been
made before transmitting data to the other end
connection-oriented protocol
A Windows 9x/Me and
Windows NT/2000/XP utility that uses a modem
and telephone line to connect to a network.
dial-up networking
A code used to authenticate the
source of a file or document or to identify and
authenticate a person or organization sending data
over the Internet. The code is assigned by a certificate
authority such as VeriSign and includes a
public key for encryption.
digital certificate
A code used to authenticate the
source of a file or document or to identify and
authenticate a person or organization sending data
over the Internet. The code is assigned by a certificate
authority such as VeriSign and includes a
public key for encryption
digital ID or digital certificate
A code used to authenticate the
source of a file or document or to identify and
authenticate a person or organization sending data
over the Internet.
digital signature or digital certificate
A telephone line that
carries digital data from end to end, and can be
leased from the telephone company for individual
use. Some DSL lines are rated at 5 Mbps, about
50 times faster than regular telephone lines
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
The protocol used to
transfer files over a TCP/IP network such that the
file does not need to be converted to ASCII format
before transferring it.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Number of routers a network
packet can pass through on its way to its destination
before it is dropped
hop count or time to live (TTL)
A markup language
used for hypertext documents on the World
Wide Web. This language uses tags to format the
document, create hyperlinks, and mark locations
for graphics.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
The communications
protocol used by the World Wide Web
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
A version of the HTTP protocol
that includes data encryption for security.
HTTPS (HTTP secure)
Part of
the IP layer that is used to transmit error messages
and other control messages to hosts and
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
Version 4 of the IMAP protocol, which is an e-mail
protocol that has more functionality than its predecessor,
POP. IMAP can archive messages in folders
on the e-mail server and can allow the user to
choose not to download attachments to messages.
IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4)
A Windows 98
and Windows XP utility that uses NAT and acts
as a proxy server to manage two or more computers
connected to the Internet.
Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)
The rules of communication in
the TCP/IP stack that control segmenting data into
packets, routing those packets across networks, and
then reassembling the packets once they reach their
IP (Internet Protocol)
A digital
telephone line that can carry data at about five times
the speed of regular telephone lines. Two channels
(telephone numbers) share a single pair of wires.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
The protocol
used by newsgroup server and client
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
The protocol that an
e-mail server and client use when the client
requests the downloading of e-mail messages.
POP (Post Office Protocol)
As applied to services running on a computer,
a number assigned to a process on a computer
so that the process can be found by TCP/IP.
port or port number
Numbers that are used by devices and
the CPU to manage communication between them.
port address or I/O addresses
A technique that allows a computer
on the Internet to reach a computer on
a private network using a certain port when the
private network is protected by a router using
NAT as a proxy server. Port forwarding is also
called tunneling.
port forwarding
A measure of the success of
communication over the Internet. Communication
is degraded on the Internet when packets
are dropped, delayed, delivered out of order, or
Quality of Service (QoS)
A protocol that governs
the methods for communicating via modems
and dial-up telephone lines
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
protocol that describes how a PC is to interact
with a broadband converter box, such as cable
modem, when the two are connected by an
Ethernet cable, connected to a NIC in a PC.
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet)
A protocol
used to translate the unique hardware NIC
addresses (MAC addresses) into IP addresses (the
reverse of ARP).
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)
A technique used by servers on
the Internet to speed up download times by
caching Web pages previously requested in case
they are requested again.
server-side caching
An established communication link between
two software programs. On the Internet, a session
is created by TCP.
A line protocol
used by regular telephone lines that has largely
been replaced by PPP.
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
The protocol
used by e-mail clients and servers to send e-mail
messages over the Internet.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
A protocol that
is used to authenticate or prove that a client who
attempts to use an email server to send email is
authorized to use the server.
SMTP AUTH (SMTP Authentication)
protocol used to monitor and manage network
traffic on a workstation.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
A secure protocol developed
by Netscape that uses a digital certificate
including a public key to encrypt and decrypt data.
SSL (secure socket layer)
Part of the
TCP/IP protocol suite. TCP guarantees delivery of
data for application protocols and establishes a
session before it begins transmitting data.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Number of routers a network
packet can pass through on its way to its destination
before it is dropped. Also called hop count.
time to live (TTL)
A protocol used to
secure data sent over the Internet. It is an improved
version of SSL.
TLS (Transport Layer Security)
A connectionless
protocol that does not require a connection to
send a packet and does not guarantee that the
packet arrives at its destination. UDP is faster
than TCP because TCP takes the time to make a
connection and guarantee delivery.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
An address for a
resource on the Internet. A URL can contain the
protocol used by the resource, the name of the
computer and its network, and the path and name
of a file on the computer.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)