Scopolamine Essay

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Scopolamine

Scopolamine is in a family of anticholinergic hallucinogens along with hyocyamine, and atropine. Although they can be synthesized in a laboratory from various precursors, they are found naturally occurring in four genuses of the Solanaceae (potato) family: Atropa, Datura,
Mandragora, and Hyoscyamus. People around the world have utilized the effects of Scopolamine in manifold ways. Using extracts from Atropa
Belladonna which means beautiful woman, ancient Egyptian and Roman women are supposed to have put the juice on their eyes leading to larger pupils which was considered more beautiful. In more recent times, the prolonged dilation of the pupils known as mydriosis, has been effectively employed during
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Commercially it has been given names such as Buscopan,
Hyospasmol, Lotanal, Oportunin, Scop, Scopoderm, and Spasmofen.
Scopolamine has a molecular weight of 303.06 g/mol. It is very unstable chemically, breaking down upon exposure to heat or light. For this reason it is often kept in hydrated forms or as salts with HCL or
HBr. Products that contain Scopolamine such as the Transderm Scop, often utilized the greater stability of the salt or hydrated forms in their products. It is often taken for granted that Scopolamine and
Hyocine are the same substance. But, while the biological activity of both is similar, Scopolamine is actually the enantiomer of hyocine.

Upon ingestion of Scopolamine through the Gastrointestinal tract, or through mucous membranes, it travels through the blood and into the parasympathetic nervous system. Here it blocks the transmission of nerve impulses by acetylcholine and subsequently causes symptoms of parasympathetic system depression. These symptoms include: dilated pupils, rapid heartbeat, dry skin and mouth, and a blocking of the mucous in the nose and throat. These anticholinergic affects also inhibit the vestibular input to the CNS which directly inhibits the vomiting reflex. This is the reason that

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