Vargha-Khadem Case Study

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Quiz on Vargha-Khadem paper

1. How does Tulving describe the two main types of memory?

Tulving describes two main types of memory: Semantic and Episodic Memory. Tulving described the semantic memory as “context free” memory due to its fact oriented nature. In contrast, he called the episodic memory “context rich” memory, since recollection of the episodic memory is often enriched with details and emotional connections about the event. Both semantic and episodic memories are types of declarative memory.

2. Why were the children brought to Vargha Khadem's attention in the first place?

The children were brought to Vargha-Khadem’s attention because their parents started to realize some dysfunctionalities in their behavior. First of all, children failed to remember the events of daily life, which indicated that their episodic memory was impaired: they could not remember or recall the day’s activities or incidents properly. Secondly, children had issues with their temporal memory. They were not well oriented in date and time, and struggled with attending to their previously scheduled activities. Lastly, children had spatial difficulties. They could not locate their belongings, and had difficulty finding their way in both familiar and new environments.

3.
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How was the structural damage in the 3 children assessed?

The structural damage was assessed through MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanning. There were three specific techniques used to assess different aspects of the brain structure. Volumetric measurements and T2 relaxometry was used to investigate the hippocampal damage, whereas the proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess overall abnormalities in the temporal lobes. It was found that children had severe hippocampal damage, but the overlying cortices (entorhinal and perirhinal) were spared.

4. Give 3 examples of a loss of hippocampal dependent memory in their

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