The nurse, Allison, in the case study used a wide variety of knowledge in order to best care for her patients in a holistic approach. In this section, five different types of knowledge will be discussed and explained how Allison used each type to nurse her patients. Carper, Van der Zalm, Bergum and Wolfer described empirical knowledge as “the knowledge we consider to be “fact,” such as what we read in textbooks, or what has been demonstrated through research” (as cited in Bungay, 2005). Allison consistently applied empirical knowledge throughout the beginning of her shift. A few examples of when empirical knowledge was applied in her nursing included listening to report and gathering all the information on the patients in order to
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Carper described that “personal knowledge incorporates the experiences that the nurse brings to the situation, the knowing of self and patient, and involves helping the patient create meaning of his/her experience” (as cited in Bungay, 2005). Allison used personal knowledge when trying to resolve Mr. Nelson’s anger as she had previous patients who had acted the same way in the past. She used the knowledge of her past and personal experience to come to the understanding that the anger was not meant for her, and that she needed to see past the anger in order to best care for the patient.
The fourth type of knowledge that Allison used when caring for her patients was esthetic knowledge. White described, “esthetic knowledge is visible in that it is the creative and imaginative aspect of care that we provide” (as cited in Bungay, 2005). Bungay stated that “this way of knowing can be considered the art of nursing. It is how we use the knowledge was we have” (Bungay, 2005). Two instances where Allison applied esthetic knowledge was when she determined Mr. Nelson’s oxygen supply and demand to be at an acceptable level through empirical knowledge. Based off this knowledge, Allison applied esthetic knowledge by focusing on a different part of nursing, nursing the mind rather than the body. She took the time to listen to him rather than performing an assessment right away. Allison also showed esthetic knowledge when she used non-verbal