Enviromental Impact Assessment Essay example

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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is assessment of impacts on the environment due to proposed activity and finding ways to mitigate the environmental impacts.
These impacts are assessed based on many components such as environmental, socio-economic, cultural and human-health aspects.

EIA is standardly defined as the study of impact on environment of proposed action like policy, plan or project. It is a process of anticipating or establishing the changes in the physical, ecological and socio-economic components of the environment before, during and after an impending developmental project so that undesirable effects, if any can be mitigated.
Any developmental activity will surely have negative impacts on the environment
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As a part of increasing environmental awareness EIA was extended to projects which required approval of Public Investment Board which was only in administrative basis and lacked legislative support.
In India till 1980s the subject of environment and forest were the concern of Department of Science and Technology and Ministry of Agriculture and there was lack of awareness among the people about environment and impacts of project on the environment.
Department of environment was established in 1980 which was further upgraded to Ministry Of Environment & Forest in 1985
Five years after the establishment of MOEF it issued guidelines for Environmental Assessment of River Valley Projects.
The objective of EIA according to MOEF in the guidelines was “to achieve sustainable development and prevention of long term adverse effects by incorporating suitable prevention and control measures”.

Followed by which The Ministry Of Environment and Forests (MOEF), Government of India enacted various laws to check and mitigate impacts. The main laws are-
1) Wildlife Protection Act in 1972
2) Water Act in 1974
3) The Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act in 1981
4) The Environmental Protection Act in 1986
5) Biological Diversity Act in 2002
The responsible body for the above acts is Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB).

A major legislative measure for the

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