Botulism or Sausage Poisoning Essay

1900 Words 8 Pages
1. Introduction
Botulism or sausage poisoning, name “botulism” similar “botulus” in Latin word meaning sausage was first recognized in late 1700s after occurs the disease in southern Germany. Around 1820s, German neurologist Justinus Kerner studied and explained that the disease relates to ingestion of spoiled sausage. Kerner isolated the substance from sausage and described that the sausage had poisonous substance which was responsed for clinical signs connected with botulism but the deadly poison was still unknown. In 1895, have been discovered that the offending etiological agent in spoiled was a bacterium which is Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) by Emile Van Ermengem and published in 1897 (Julie and Dorothy, 2007). The bacterium
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Neurotoxigenic clostridia are saprophytic and have not obligatory relationship with an animal host, which different from other pathogenic bacteria. These botulinum neurotoxins can cause acute neuroparalytic disease of humans and animals whose neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of somatic nerves is the primarily acting of BoNTs. Lack of smooth muscle activity and glandular, secretory functions and impairing certain autonomic activities are affected by BoNTs blockade releasing of acetylcholine (ACh) and neurotransmission at cholinergic parasympathetic and postganglionic sympathetic nerves (Eric and Cesare, 2008).
2. Etiology
The bacterium Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus and caused by action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTs) which causes a flaccid paralysis. The different neurotoxin-producing organisms from C. botulinumn consist of seven distinct serotype which are deided into A, B, C, D, E, F, and G according to the difference of terminal binding comfiguration. Bacteriophages carried genes that are encoded the neurotoxins C,D, and E, a plasmid has gene encoded for neurotoxin type G. The genes located in C. botulinumn chromosomal material are encoded for neurotoxin type A, B, and F. Neurotoxin types A, B, and E are caused the majority of human botulism while types C, D, and F cause rare cases in human but important causes of botulism in animals especially in birds. BoNTs are peptide

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