A World Lit Only by Fire Outline Essay

8131 Words Oct 1st, 2012 33 Pages
A World Lit Only by Fire by William Manchester Outline
The Medieval Mind

I. The Dark Ages A. The Years A.D. 400 to A.D. 1000 1. Referred to as the Dark Ages because knowledge and literacy vanished during this era. 2. Rulers during this age were illiterate and most found it trivial. a. Emperor Sigismund said, “Ego sum rex Romanus et super grammatica”—as king of Rome, he was above grammar. B. Rome’s Fall in the Fifth Century 1. The Hsiung-nu (Huns) ravaged though Europe after defeat in China. a. Went from China to Russia, Russia to Ukraine, Ukraine to Romania, and from Romania continued east through Europe. i. Survivors crossed the Danube River. ii. Emperor Valens ordered that the refugees be
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Augustine was the first to teach monogamy to men. i. Women found the monogamy taught in Christianity appealing. 3. Augustine separated all things into two groups, or “cities” a. Civitas Dei i. Civitas Dei was associated with the Church. b. Civitas terrena i. Civitas terrena was secular. c. Believed that people might travel between the two cities. i. Fate would be determined on the Last Judgement. D. The Church and State 1. For hundreds of years, Europe and the Church struggled. 2. The Church became the wealthiest landowner in all of Europe. a. The Church controlled nearly every aspect of every European’s life. E. The Church’s Development 1. Paganism met wants and needs that Christianity could not provide. a. Worshippers were not confined to monogamy. 2. Pagan holidays did not die out, so the Church incorporated them. a. Christians picked January 6 as Christmas, and then later changed it to December 25. b. They linked Easter with the Passover, and then decided on the first Sunday after the full moon following the spring equinox. 3. The Church condoned or reformed ancient rites. a. The popularity of baptism increased. b. Mass replaced pagan human sacrifices. c. Christian priests replaced pagan priests in blessing homes and harvests. F. Idolatry 1. Although the early Christians strongly disagreed with idolatry, they made images, statues, and paintings of

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