Xanthan And Chitosan Concentration

Superior Essays
Optimisation studies were carried out on the basis of varying initial concentration of Chitosan and Xanthan, and varying pH of Chitosan solution. The results obtained were interesting. Unstable capsules were formed with the following combination of Xanthan and Chitosan concentration. The Chitosan solution pH was kept constant at 5.
The above table gives the inference that when Xanthan concentration is less than or equal to 0.5% or Chitosan concentration is less than or equal to 0.5%, the capsules formed are unstable.

Similarly, amorphous capsules were reported when the concentration of Xanthan was varied as shown in the given table. The Chitosan solution pH was kept constant.
This phenomenon was due to the increase in viscosity of Xanthan
…show more content…
Hence, this concentration of Xanthan and Chitosan was taken as the optimum value. The bead diameter decreases with increase in concentration and viscosity of encapsulation solution.25 Another important observation made here is that at concentration of Xanthan and Chitosan at 0.75%, a mixture of stable as well as unstable capsules were formed. This can be attributed to the fact that the concentration of both Xanthan and Chitosan is close to the limits of workability range. Similarly when Xanthan concentration was approaching to that of 2%, the capsules were a mixture of both amorphous and stable ones. All the size was average of 10 capsules each from 3 …show more content…
The soaked freeze dried capsules in water for 12 hours resulted in a significant average swelling degree percentage of 160.8%. The significance of this swelling percentage is in the fact that unless the capsule swells to a certain degree, the microbes which are to be encapsulated would not be able to get released from the capsules. Hence it is necessary that the prepared capsules have sufficient swelling degree. Whereas, the experiment conducted by soaking the capsules in only Dodecane solution resulted in very negligible swelling.
The swelling is due to the fact that the carboxyl groups in the Xanthan neutralises in acidic solution while the amino group hold the positive charge which will cause the electrostatic linkages to disappear.27 An osmotic pressure is developed and the water enters the capsules. The capsule swells until equilibrium is reached between the osmotic pressure and the network forces of the linkages in PEC.
The absorbance value was measured by setting the wavelength at 600 nm and was found to be proportional to the cell concentration by a factor of

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    An increase of Prandtl number means a slow rate of thermal-diffusion. This physically implies a decrease in the thermal boundary layer thickness. While, Prandtl number enhances the concentration profiles as shown in…

    • 899 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Ternary Systems Case Study

    • 1464 Words
    • 6 Pages

    High SF content binder might contain unreacted silica fume particles in low water content mixtures, results in poor particle packing and reduces strength. As testing both binary and ternary systems, the optimal binder composition for strength was observed with mixture of 60/40 MgO/SF ratio instead of 40/60 MgO/SF ratio as required by stoichiometry for chemical reactions to form M-S-H gel. The optimal binder composition, therefore, is dependent not only on the MgO/SiO2 ratio for maximum formation of M-S-H gel, but also the MgO/SiO2 ratio for maximum packing density characterized by particle size and shape of each constituent in the binder. By adding crushed quartz filler from 10-40% binder, the compressive strength and workability improves considerably. Compressive strengths of Q20 and Q30 samples indicate the effective crushed quartz filler content of between…

    • 1464 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Thus, the reaction resulted in the production of a murky coloured liquid. If a full neutralization reaction was to completed, a product of a transparent solution should have been created. Sodium phosphate and potassium sodium tartrate are both not strong bases and that is why the average pH change was quite low. Both of them are not bases, however, they have a high pH. This is why they were both able to increase the pH on the acidic solution.…

    • 1215 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    2.1. C. tomentosum extract characterization C. tomentosum extract proximal composition is shown in Table 1. The relatively higher ash proportion in seaweed extract (SE) (aprox. 74%) could largely be accounted for by the lower moisture content, and probably due to a hygroscopic nature of the SE (Blanco-Pascual, Montero, & Gómez-Guillén, 2014). The values of TPC and DPPH radical-scavenging activity are consistent with literature (Andrade et al., 2013; Valentão et al., 2010) (Table 1).…

    • 1376 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Solubility increases with high temperature and more agitation (stirring). The less the solution is stirred or if there’s a decrease in temperature, the solution becomes less soluble and forms a solid at the bottom of the solution. The forward reaction is endothermic because the deltaHrxn was positive, meaning that the solution was absorbing heat rather than releasing heat. An increase in Kc shows the increase of solubility in borax solution. If there’s a decrease in Kc values, that means there is a decrease in solubility.…

    • 1418 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    It is also important to have an aqueous solvent that is free of cross-linking ions to enable dissolution [3]. 1.1.1.4 Viscosity The viscosity of alginate is influenced by many parameters such as the concentration and the temperature of the used alginate, whereby the concentration has a positive influence and the temperature has a negative relationship. The viscosity of alginate solutions increases as well by decreasing pH, as carboxylate groups in the alginate backbone become protonated, form hydrogen bonds and reach a maximum around pH = 3–3.5 [3]. Another factor that affects the viscosity ist the length of the alginate molecule, or the number of the monomer units in the chains (MW), the longer chains have higher…

    • 734 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    With excess acetic anhydride and a concentrated acid, 0.510 g of salicylic acid should have yielded approximately 0.665 g of acetylsalicylic acid. Unfortunately, small quantities of the reagents and products adhered to the sides of the flask and filter paper during the experimental process. In the end, an actual yield of 0.524 g resulted from the experimental procedures. This quantity equated to a 78.8 % yield. The purity of both the salicylic acid used and the acetylsalicylic acid recovered appeared high according to their observed and theoretical melting points.…

    • 1086 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    There are 2 contribution to this this limitation of beer Lambert’s law. The individual particles of analyte no longer act independently of each other at higher concentration. The 2nd contribution is that the analyte’s absoptivity rely on the refractive index of sample. As refractive index changes with the analyte’s concentration, the value of ε and a may change. The refractive index is necessarily constant and the caliberation curve is linear, for sufficiently low concentration of analyte.…

    • 1410 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    However, this temperature was lower than the boiling point of acetone, the most volatile solvent possibly present in the unknown solution, pointing to a source of error in the measurement of the temperature. This could have been due to an inaccurate thermometer or to an error in placing the thermometer too high. Because the boiling point was so low, the more volatile solvent was estimated to be acetone, which has a boiling point of 56.5°C. After fraction A was collected, the temperature of the stillpot was increased and should have produced a steady increase in a plot of the temperature versus total volume distilled while fraction B (a mixture of the two components) was collected, until a second plateau at the boiling point of the less volatile component. The temperature of the stillpot needed to be increased after collecting fraction A because the liquid left in the stillpot was then composed of a higher percentage of the less volatile component, with a correspondingly higher vapor pressure, meaning that it would boil at a higher temperature.…

    • 958 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Liquids with high vapour pressures will boil at lower temperatures. Distillation is accomplished because of the differences in the volatility of the components in a liquid…

    • 898 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays