Null Hypothesis Case Study

Improved Essays
Question 1
Null hypothesis
The null hypothesis, which is symbolically expressed as H0, is a statement that indicates no difference between a parameter and a specific value or between two parameters.
Alternative Hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis, which is symbolically expressed as HA or H1, is a statement that indicates the presence of a difference between a parameter and a specific value or between two parameters.
Decision Rules
On testing the null hypothesis, two main decision rules are plausible. These decisions are arrived at using either the critical value or the probability value (p-value). On one hand, the critical value is a value that indicates the boundary between the critical region and the non-critical region. In this case, the critical region is a range of values of the test statistic that denotes a significant difference and that the null hypothesis should be rejected. On the other hand, the p-value denotes the likelihood of obtaining an extreme sample statistic when the null hypothesis is true. In this case, we may reject the null hypothesis or fail to
For instance when testing the null hypothesis H0: the performance of male students in science and mathematics is similar to that of female students, a researcher might reject the null when it is true. In this case, the researcher would conclude that the performance of male students in science and mathematics is different from that of female students while it is false.
Type II Error
Type II error is an error that arises when a researcher accepts a false null hypothesis. For instance, in testing the null hypothesis H0: the rate of unemployment in country A is the same as that in country B, a researcher would accept H0 when it is false. Instead, the researcher would have rejected the null and accepted the alternative H1: the rate of unemployment in country A is greater than that in country

Related Documents

• Improved Essays

They show that justification, truth, and belief conditions are insufficient for knowledge, and that JTB is an incorrect analysis. This leads to the question: how is knowledge defined? The challenge of the Gettier problem is to modify or replace JTB according so that there is a ‘Gettier-proof’ definition of knowledge. I will now argue for the view that Alvin Goldman’s causal theory best solves the Gettier problem. Goldman’s causal theory proposes that the failing within Gettier cases is one of causality, in which the justified true belief is caused too oddly or abnormally to be knowledge.…

• 924 Words
• 4 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

The article, “Standard Error of Measurement” by Leo M. Harvill from East Tennessee State University, provided a general introduction of Standard Error of Measurement (SEM). First, it introduced the basic concepts of test reliability. An obtained score or a raw score refers to the number of points obtained by an examinee. The obtained score could be influenced by several factors such as the ambiguity of test items, the fatigue of the examinee, and these factors make the obtained score unlikely to reflect the true abilities of examines. A true score is such a score that could not influenced by those random events and could represent the true abilities of examinees.…

• 729 Words
• 3 Pages
Improved Essays
• Great Essays

There are two different attempts at this solution. The first is to disallow the use of the words true and false to the original statements. This solution seems to strengthen the value of the truth value we assign to this statement but also puts limits on the original statement much like the first two solutions, which were found to be problematic and also eliminates statements predicating truth or falseness that are non-paradoxical.The second part of this solution comes from Alfred Tarski and states that there are different levels to the truth values, true and false. The original truth values in the statement do not have as much significance as the truth values we attach to the statement because the truth values in the sentences only apply to object language. Meanwhile, the truth values that we attach to the statements apply to a higher-level language, the meta- language.…

• 1528 Words
• 7 Pages
Great Essays
• Improved Essays

Specifically, it attempts an account of explanations that end with “non-inferentially justified belief”, by showing the existence of beliefs with a certain property that makes it appropriately basic and indefeasible. This strategy consists of relating claims to know to a foundation, which is asserted to be true, which can be correctly applied to yield knowledge. In this manner, foundationalism aims to provide an alternative to the regression problem – that the chain of reasons can come to rest on something which is immediately self-evident and is thus capable of stopping the regress. Claims to know are typically justified by virtue of such a first principle, or set of principles, known to be true, from which the remainder of the theory strictly follows. Since foundationalism provides reasoning on the basis of one or more indefeasible principles, which are regarded as necessary and necessarily true, knowledge derived from such principles should be beyond doubt of any kind, defeating even the most radical forms of scepticism.…

• 1084 Words
• 5 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

I also would be going over his regress argument. Bonjour thinks that there are two different responses for his argument, externalism and givenism. Bonjour aims to show that basic beliefs are impossible and therefore foundationalism should be rejected. He thinks that there must be some basic belief B which entails that it is likely to be true and independent of any inference from any beliefs other than the one he stated. He argues that in the case of B being an empirical belief then we can accept the two premises because of priori.…

• 1163 Words
• 5 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

There are different types of parametric tests to determine if a statistically significant difference is present. An independent-samples t-test is used when comparing two groups on one continuous dependent variable that is normally distributed. A paired-samples t-test is used when you look at the differences of one group across two time periods or observation periods. ANOVA tests are used when we are examining more than two groups or more than two observation periods. Slide 3: Our null hypothesis states that no difference occurs.…

• 1875 Words
• 8 Pages
Improved Essays
• Superior Essays

SR for some, is a way to explain such discrepancies. For if an experience fails to correspond with the truth, it is merely misrepresenting the object in question. Weak representationalism (who grant both intentional and qualitative contents to mental states) however, can also account for veracity, which makes the argument ineffectual in proving SR. Arguments for SR: Materialism A materialist will be more inclined to accept SR, since it provides a simple solution to the problem of having to explain immaterial objects, such as the qualitative aspect of qualia. SR maintains however, that mental states are purely intentional and not qualitative, which reinforces its compatibilism with materialism.…

• 1251 Words
• 6 Pages
Superior Essays
• Great Essays

First, the wording in the scale might have misled the participants in the way of their rating. The word “skill” might be seen more as being good at a task, for example, actually being able to apply to graduate school. If this is the case, the results suggest that both men and women are lucky that they have the skills to apply to graduate school, and therefore did not measure what was intended. Future research could change the wording of the scale to intelligence instead of skill, which could be more accurate for determining admission to graduate school. Another limitation to the study is the independent variables.…

• 1812 Words
• 8 Pages
Great Essays
• Superior Essays

Until the late 1980’s boys were out performing girls and were more likely to attain three A-levels essential for university admission therefore less girls were entering higher education. Due to these inequalities, there was a raise is concern and research conducted by feminists. Some of the findings suggested that the school curriculum was male dominated. Giddens (2001, p516) states “for a long time there was concern that teachers responded more readily to boys than girls in the classroom, but as girls have forged ahead, worries have moved to underachievement in boys”. This extreme reversal in achievement is reasonable for the focus on ‘underachieving boys’.…

• 1586 Words
• 7 Pages
Superior Essays
• Superior Essays

For example, “Unlike quotation, there is no standard linguistic mechanism for identifying recycled text,” (Moskovitz 6). Students may believe that they are not cheating by changing only a couple words. Students are more likely to cheat online then the students around them because they may trust the internet more. In conclusion Moskovitz states there are different types of cheating, but they are not all the same. Another idea, by Parke Muth (Summer 2015) states the differences between why students and international students cheat.…

• 985 Words
• 4 Pages
Superior Essays