What Are The Pros And Cons Of The Polio Vaccine
Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) is the only form of polio prevention used in the United States. Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is another form of polio prevention, used in other countries. Patients who are administered OPV are at risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) due to exposure to the live virus. In 1996, prior to IPV being the only form of polio vaccination in the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended the combined administration of OPV and IPV in vaccination schedules. The number of VAPP cases continued to outnumber wild polio virus cases from 1980 to 1999 in the United States. ACIP then made the recommendation to suspend the use of OPV in 2000. …show more content…
The United States does not use the OPV vaccine. There are a few advantages of the OPV over the IPV. The OPV dosage does not contain preservatives and is about 95% effective. Many who are against vaccine usage or are allergic choose not to vaccinate due to the preservatives. The preservative free OPV would allow those that decline vaccination or are allergic to immunize. The downfall to the OPV is that a live virus is used and is shed for up to 6 weeks in the vaccinated person’s stool. In areas with poor sanitation and sewage, this may cause the disease to easily spread.
IPV is usually administered as a 3 part injection. After all three doses, the IPV administration is 99% effective. The downfall of the IPV is that length of immunity is unknown and those protected with IPV may be more at risk to the natural strains known in other counties.
Challenges of Polio Eradication Poor community participation and insufficient community ownership can lead to an endemic of wild polio virus. The places where community involvement in the eradication program has been low, OPV coverage also remained